Click here to download

Post-partum depression in immigrant mothers: A review of the literature
Author/s: Simona Di Folco, Giulio Cesare Zavattini 
Year:  2015 Issue: Language: Italian 
Pages:  31 Pg. 55-85 FullText PDF:  137 KB
DOI:  10.3280/MAL2015-002004
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 

This review investigates post-partum depression (PPD) in immigrants and refugees and possible barriers which may influence their help seeking behavior. For the bibliographical research, Psych- Info and Medline online databases were used, considering the period between 2004 and identifying 51 articles. Findings suggested: 1) peculiarity of needs and risk factors for PPD among immigrants; 2) the specificity of underlined and not so much studied cultural factors; 3) paucity of studies concerning social support in help seeking behavior; and finally 4) need of future research about their perceptions, social support and barriers to help seeking in order to plan possible strategies and programs of intervention.
Keywords: Post-partum depression, refugees, immigrants, social support, not help seeking behavior

  1. Affonso, D. D., De, A. K., & Horowitz, J. A., et al. (2000). An international study exploring levels of postpartum depressive symptomatology. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 49, 207-216,, DOI: 10.1016/S0022-3999(00)00176-8
  2. Almeida, L. M., Caldas, J., Ayres-de-Campos, D., Salcedo-Barrientos, D., & Dias, S. (2013). Maternal healthcare in migrants: A systematic review. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 17, 8, 1346-1354,, DOI: 10.1007/s10995-012-1149-x
  3. Almeida, O. P., McCaul, K., Hankey, G. J., Norman, P., Jamrozik, K., & Flicker, L. (2008). Homocysteine and depression in later life. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65, 1286-1294,, DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc.65.11.1286
  4. Alvidrez, J., & Azocar, F. (1999). Distressed women’s clinic patients: Preferences for mental health treatments and perceived obstacles. General Hospital Psychiatry, 21, 340-347,, DOI: 10.1016/S0163-8343(99)00038-9
  5. Ammaniti, M., Speranza, A. M., Tambelli, R., Muscetta, S., Lucarelli, L., Vismara, L., Odorisio, F., & Cimino, S. (2006). A prevention and promotion intervention program in the field of mother-infant relationship. Infant Mental Health Journal, 27, 1, 70-90,, DOI: 10.1002/imhj.20081
  6. Ammerman, R. T., Bodley, A. L., Putnam, F. W., Lopez, W. L., Holleb, L. J., Stevens, J., & Van Ginkel, J. B. (2007). In home cognitive behavior therapy for a depressed mother in a home visitation program. Clinical Case Studies, 6, 161-80,, DOI: 10.1177/1534650106286533
  7. Ammerman, R. T., Putnam, F. W., Bosse, N. B., Teeters, A. R., & Van Ginkel, J. B. (2010). Maternal depression in home visitation: A systematic review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 15, 191-200,, DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2009.12.002
  8. Aragones, E., Labad, A., Pinol, J. L., & Alonso, Y. (2005). Somatized depression in primary care attenders. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 58, 2, 145-151,, DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2004.07.010.
  9. Ardino, V. (2011). La costruzione di significato della violenza sulla donna in contesti post-conflitto: uno studio interpretativo fenomenologico su rifugiati congolesi. Maltrattamento e abuso all’infanzia, 13, 3, 91-103,, DOI: 10.3280/MAL2011-003006
  10. Ayalon, L., & Young, M. A. (2003). A comparison of depressive symptomatology in African-Americans and Caucasian-Americans. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 34, 111-124,, DOI: 10.1177/0022022102239158
  11. Banfield, E. C. (1976). Le basi morali di una società arretrata. Bologna: il Mulino. Barclay, L., & Kent, D. (1998). Recent immigration and the misery of motherhood: A discussion of pertinent issues. Midwifery, 14, 4-9.
  12. Bayles, B., & Katerndahl, D. (2009). Culture-bound syndromes in Hispanic primary care patients. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 39, 1, 1531,, DOI: 10.2190/PM.39.1.b
  13. Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., & Erbaugh, J. (1961) An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 561-571,, DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc.1961.01710120031004
  14. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory-II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
  15. Beck, C. T., & Gable, R. K. (2000). Postpartum Depression Screening Scale: Development and psychometric testing. Nursing Research, 49, 272-282.
  16. Beck, C. T., & Gable, R. K. (2003). Postpartum Depression Screening Scale: Spanish version. Nursing Research, 52, 296-306.
  17. Bina, R. (2008). The impact of cultural factors upon postpartum depression: A literature review. Health Care for Women International, 29, 568-592,, DOI: 10.1080/07399330802089149
  18. Bjerke, S. E. Y., Vangen, S., Nordhagen, R., Ytterdahl, T., Magnus, P., & Stray-Pedersen, B. (2008). Postpartum depression among Pakistani women in Norway: Prevalence and risk factors. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, 21, 12, 889-894,, DOI: 10.1080/14767050802320340
  19. Bostock, J., Marsen, M., Sarwar, Z., & Stoltz, S. (1996). Postnatal depression in Asian women. Community Nurse, 10, 34-36.
  20. Brown, C., Schulberg, H. C., & Madonia, M. J. (1996). Clinical presentations of major depression by African Americans and whites in primary medical care practice. Journal of Affective Disorders, 41, 3, 181-191.
  21. Callister, L., Beckstrand, R. L., & Corbett, C. (2011). Postpartum depression and help seeking behaviors in immigrant Hispanic women. JOGNN: Journal Of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 40, 4, 440-449,, DOI: 10.1016/S0165-0327(96)00085-7
  22. Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women (CRIAW; 2006). Intersectional feminist frameworks: An emerging vision. Ottawa Publisher, Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women
  23. Carballo, M., Grocutt, M., & Hadzihasanovic, A. (1996). Women and migration: A public health issue. World Health Statistics Quarterly, 49, 2, 158-164.
  24. Chandran, M., Tharyan, P., Muliyil, J., & Abraham, S. (2002). Post-partum depression in a cohort of women from a rural area of Tamil Nadu, India. Incidence and risk factors. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 181, 499-504,, DOI: 10.1192/bjp.181.6.499
  25. Chen, T. L., Tai, C. J., Wu, T. W., Chiang, C. P., & Chien, L. Y. (2012). Postpartum cultural practices are negatively associated with depressive symptoms among Chinese and Vietnamese immigrant mothers married to Taiwanese men. Women & Health, 52, 536-552,, DOI: 10.1080/03630242.2012.697109
  26. Christensen, A. L., Stuart, E. A., Perry, D. F., & Le, H. N. (2011). Unintended pregnancy and perinatal depression trajectories in low-income, high-risk Hispanic immigrants. Prevention Science, 12, 3, 289-299.
  27. Clark, L. (2001). La familia: Methodological issues in the assessment of perinatal social support for Mexicanas living in the United States. Social Science & Medicine, 53, 1303-1320,, DOI: 10.1007/s11121-011-0213-x
  28. Collins, C., Zimmerman, C., & Howard, L. (2011). Refugee, asylum seeker, immigrant and postnatal depression: Rates and risk factors. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 14, 3, 3-11,, DOI: 10.1007/s00737-010-0198-7
  29. Confalonieri, E., Gennari, M., & Renaldini, M. (2004). Prostituzione e donne straniere vittime della tratta: due studi qualitativi. Maltrattamento e abuso all’infanzia, 6, 1, 49-72.
  30. Corrigan, P. W., Backs Edwards, A., Green, A., Lickey Diwan, S., & Penn, D. L. (2001). Prejudice, social distance, and familiarity with mental illness. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 27, 219-225.
  31. Cox, J. L., Holden, J. M., & Sagovsky, R. (1987). Detection of postnatal depression: Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 782-786,, DOI: 10.1192/bjp.150.6.782
  32. Coyne, J. C., Schwenk, T. L., & Fechner-Bates, S. (1995). Nondetection of depression by primary care physicians reconsidered. General Hospital Psychiatry, 17, 3-12,, DOI: 10.1016/0163-8343(94)00056-J
  33. Dankner, R., Goldberg, R. P., & Fisch, R. Z., et al. (2000). Cultural elements of postpartum depression. A study of 327 Jewish Jerusalem women. Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 45, 97-104.
  34. Deepika, G., Murphy, S. O., & Cohen, J. (2006). Immigrant Asian Indian women and postpartum depression. Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, 35, 1, 98-104,, DOI: 10.1111/j.1552-6909.2006.00007.x
  35. Diaz, M. A., Le, H. N., Cooper, B. A., & Muñoz, R. F. (2007). Interpersonal factors and perinatal depressive symptomatology in a Latina sample. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13, 4, 328-336,, DOI: 10.1037/1099
  36. 9809.13.4.328. Di Blasio, P., Ionio, C., & Confalonieri, E. (2008). Parto e scrittura creativa: elaborare raccontando un’esperienza traumatica. In V. Caretti & G. Craparo (Eds.), Trauma e psicopatologia (pp. 270-286). Roma: Astrolabio.
  37. Di Blasio, P., Miragoli, S., Camisasca, E., Di Vita, A. M., Pizzo, R., & Pipitone, L. (2015). Emotional distress following childbirth: An intervention to buffer depressive and PTSD symptoms. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 11, 2, 214-232,, DOI: 10.5964/ejop.v11i2.779
  38. Di Folco, S., & Zavattini, G. C. (2014). La relazione d’attaccamento padrebambino: una rassegna della letteratura. Giornale Italiano di Psicologia, 1, 159-190,, DOI: 10.1421/77211
  39. Feinberg, E., Smith, M. V., Morales, M. J., Claussen, A. H., Smith, D. C., & Perou, R. (2006). Improving women’s health during internatal periods: Developing an evidenced-based approach to addressing maternal depression in pediatric settings. Journal of Women’s Health, 15, 692-703,, DOI: 10.1353/hpu.0.0169
  40. Feinberg, E., Smith, M. P., & Naik, R. (2009). Ethnically diverse mothers’ views on the acceptability of screening for maternal depressive symptoms during pediatric well-child visits. Journal of Health Care Poor Underserved, 20, 3, 780-797.
  41. Fernandez y Garcia, E., Franks, P. R., Jerant, T., Bell, R. A., & Kravitz R. L. (2011). Depression treatment preferences of Hispanic individuals: Exploring the influence of ethnicity, language and explanatory models. Journal American Board of Family Medicine, 24, 1, 39-50,, DOI: 10.3122/jabfm.2011.01.100118
  42. Gagnon, A., & Tuck, J. (2004). A systematic review of questionnaires measuring the health of resettling refugee women. Health Care for Women International, 25, 111-149,, DOI: 10.1080/07399330490267503
  43. Gagnon, A., & Stewart, E. D. (2014). Resilience in international migrant women following violence associated with pregnancy. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 17, 4, 303-310,, DOI: 10.1007/s00737-013-0392-5
  44. Garcia-Moreno, C., Jansen, H. A. F. M., Ellsberg, M., Heise, L., & Watts, C. (2005). WHO multicountry study on women’s health and domestic violence against women. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  45. Gaynes, B. N., Gavin, N., Meltzer-Brody, S., Lohr, K., Swinson, T., & Gartlehner, G., et al. (2005). Perinatal depression: prevalence, screening accuracy, and screening outcomes. Retrieved AHRQ publication number: 05-E006-02.
  46. Heh, S. S., Coombes, L., & Bartlett, H. (2004). The association between depressive symptoms and social support in Taiwanese women during the month. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 41, 573-579,, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2004.01.003
  47. Heilemann, M., Coffey-Love, M., & Frutos, L. (2004). Perceived reasons for depression among low income women of Mexican descent. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 18, 185-192,, DOI: 10.1016/j.apnu.2004.07.006.Heilemann,M.,Frutos,L.,Lee,K.A.,&Kury,F.S.(2004).Resources,risks,andprotectivefactorsinrelationtodepressivesymptomsamongpregnantandpostpartumwomenofMexicandescent.HealthCareforWomenInternational,25,88-106,doi:10.1080/07399330490253265
  48. Heneghan, A. M., Mercer, M. B., & DeLeone, N. L. (2004). Will mothers discuss parenting stress and depressive symptoms with their child’s pediatrician? Pediatrics, 113, 460-467.
  49. Hinshaw, S., & Stier, A. (2008). Stigma as related to mental disorders. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 4, 367-393,, DOI: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.4.022007.141245
  50. Horowitz, J. A., Murphy, C. A., Gregory, K. E., & Wojcik, J. (2009). Communitybased postpartum depression screening: Results from the CARE project. Psychiatric Services, 60, 432-434,, DOI: 10.1111/j.1552-6909.2010.01199.x
  51. Hung, C. H., Wang, H. H., Chang, S. H., Jian, S. H., & Yang, Y. M. (2012). The health status of postpartum immigrant women in Taiwan. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 21, 1544-1553,, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2011.03999.x
  52. Ionio, C., & Di Blasio, P. (2014). Post-traumatic stress symptoms after childbirth and early mother-child interactions: An exploratory study. Journal of Reproductive & Infant Psychology, 19, 163-181,, DOI: 10.1080/02646838.2013.841880
  53. Josefsson, A., Berg, G., Nordin, C., & Sydsjo, G. (2001). Prevalence of depressive symptoms in late pregnancy and postpartum. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 80, 251-255,, DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0412.2001.080003251.x
  54. Kalibatseva, Z., & Leong, F. T. L. (2014). A critical review of culturally sensitive treatments for depression: Recommendations for intervention and research. Psychological Services, 11, 4, 433-450,, DOI: 10.1037/a0036047
  55. Kaltman, S., Green, B. L., Mete, M., Shara, N., & Miranda, J. (2010). Trauma, depression, and comorbid PTSD/depression in a community sample of Latina immigrants. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy, 2, 1, 31-39,, DOI: 10.1037/a0018952
  56. Kendall-Tackett, K. A. (2007). A new paradigm for postpartum depression: The central role of inflammation and how breastfeeding and anti-inflammatory treatments decrease risk. International Breastfeeding Journal, 2, 6,, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4358-2-6
  57. Kennedy, A. C., Bybee, D., & Greeson, M. R. (2014). Examining cumulative victimization, community violence exposure, and stigma as contributors to PTSD symptoms among high-risk young women. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 84, 3, 284-294,, DOI: 10.1037/ort0000001
  58. Kennedy, P., & Murphy-Lawless, J. (2003) The maternity care needs of refugee and asylum seeking women in Ireland. Feminist Review, 73, 39-53.
  59. Lambert, J. E., & Alhassoon, O. M. (2010). Trauma-focused therapy for refugees: Meta-analytic findings. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 62, 1, 28-37,, DOI: 10.1037/cou0000048
  60. Lansakara, N., Brown, S. J., & Gartland, D. (2010). Birth outcomes, postpartum health and primary care contacts of immigrant mothers in an Australian nulliparous pregnancy cohort study. Maternal Child Health Journal, 14, 5, 807-16,, DOI: 10.1007/s10995-009-0514-x
  61. Leong, F., Park, Y. S., & Kalibatseva, Z. (2013). Disentangling immigrant status in mental health: Psychological protective and risk factors among Latino and Asian American immigrants. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 83, 361-371,, DOI: 10.1111/ajop.12020
  62. Lucero, N., Beckstrand, R., Callister, L.C., & Birkhead, A. (2012). The prevalence of postpartum depression in Hispanic immigrant women. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 24, 12, 726-734,, DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-7599.2012.00744.x
  63. Manson, S. M., Shore, J. H., & Bloom, J. D. (1985). The depressive experience in American Indian communities: A challenge for psychiatric theory and diagnosis. In A. Kleinman & B. Good (Eds.), Culture and depression: Studies in the anthropology and cross-cultural psychiatry of affect and disorder (pp. 331-368). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  64. Martinez-Schallmoser, L., Telleen, S., & MacMullen, N. J. (2003). The effect of social support and acculturation on postpartum depression in Mexican American women. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 14, 329-338,, DOI: 10.1177/1043659603257162
  65. McFarlane, J., Parker, B., & Moran, B. (2007). Abuse during pregnancy: Prevention and intervention. White Plains: March of Dimes Education Foundation.
  66. McGarry, J., Kim, H., Sheng, X., Egger, M., & Baksh, L. (2009). Postpartum depression and help-seeking behavior. Journal of Midwifery Womens Health, 54, 1, 50-56,, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmwh.2008.07.003
  67. McLeish, J. (2005) Maternity experiences of asylum seekers in England. British Journal of Midwifery, 13, 12, 782-789.
  68. Mechakra-Tahiri, S., Zunzunegui, M. V., & Seguin, L. (2007). Self-rated health and postnatal depressive symptoms among immigrant mothers in Quebec. Women Health, 45, 4, 1-17,, DOI: 10.1300/J013v45n04_01
  69. Milani, L., & Gagliardi, G. (2013). Fattori di rischio e di protezione nella valutazione delle competenze parentali di famiglie italiane e famiglie immigrate. Maltrattamento e abuso all’infanzia, 15, 1, 59-80,, DOI: 10.3280/MAL2013-001004
  70. Miranda, J., Chung, J. Y., Green, B. L., Krupnick, J., Siddique, J., Revicki, D. A., & Belin, T. (2003). Treating depression in predominantly low income young minority women: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 290, 57-65,, DOI: 10.1001/jama.290.1.57
  71. Miszkurka, M., Zunzunegui, M. V., & Goulet, L. (2012). Immigrant status, antenatal depressive symptoms, and frequency and source of violence: What’s the relationship? Archives of Womens Mental Health, 15, 5, 387-396,, DOI: 10.1007/s00737-012-0298-7
  72. Monti, F., Agostini, F., Marano, G., & Lupi, F. (2008). The course of maternal depressive symptomatology during the first 18 months postpartum in an Italian sample. Archives of Womens Mental Health, 11, 231-238,, DOI: 10.1007/s00737-008-0017-6
  73. Morrow, M., Smith, J. E., Lai, Y., & Jaswal, S. (2008). Shifting landscapes: Immigrant women and postpartum depression. Health Care Women Intern, 29, 6, 593-617,, DOI: 10.1080/07399330802089156
  74. Munk-Olsen, T., Laursen, T. M., Mendelson, T., & Pedersen, C. B. (2010). Perinatal mental disorders in native Danes and immigrant women. Archives in Women’s Mental Health, 13, 319-326,, DOI: 10.1007/s00737-009-0131-0
  75. Munoz, R. F., Le, H. N., Ippen, C. G., Diaz, M. A., Urizar, G. G., Soto, J., & Lieberman, A. F. (2007). Prevention of postpartum depression in low-income women: Development of the Mamas y Bebes/Mothers and Babies Course. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 14, 1, 70-83,, DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2006.04.021
  76. Murray, L., & Cooper, P. (1996). The impact of postpartum depression on child development. International Review of Psychiatry, 8, 55-63,, DOI: 10.3109/09540269609037817
  77. Murray, L., Cooper, P., & Fearon, P. (2014). Parenting difficulties and postnatal depression: Implications for primary healthcare assessment and intervention. Community Practitioner, 87, 11, 34-38.
  78. Nadeem, E., Lange, J. M., Edge, D., Fongwa, M., Belin, T., & Miranda, J. (2007). Does stigma keep poor young immigrant and US-born Black and Latina women from seeking mental health care. Psychiatric Services, 58, 12,1547-1554.
  79. Nadeem, E., Lange, J. M., & Miranda, J. (2009). Perceived need for care among low-income immigrant and US-born Black and Latina women with depression. Journal of Women’s Health, 18, 3, 369-375,, DOI: 10.1089/jwh.2008.0898
  80. National Research Council & Institute of Medicine (2009). Preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders among young people: Progress and possibilities. Committee on Prevention of Mental Disorders and Substance Abuse Among Children, Youth, and Young Adults: Research Advances and Promising Interventions. In M. E. O’Connell, T. Boat & K. E. Warner (Eds.), Board on children, youth, and families, division of behavioral and social sciences and education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
  81. Nicolaidis, C., Timmons, V., Thomas, M. J., Wahab, S., Mejia, A., & Mitchell, S. R. (2010). “You don’t go tell White people nothing”: African American women’s perspective on the influence of violence and race on depression and depression care. American Journal of Public Health, 100, 1470-1476,, DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2009.161950
  82. O’Mahony, J. M., & Donnelly, T. T. (2010). Immigrant and refugee women’s postpartum depression help-seeking experiences and access to care: A review and analysis of the literature. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 17, 10, 917-928,, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2850.2010.01625.x.
  83. O’Mahony, J. M., Donnelly, T., Este, D., & Raffin Bouchal, S. (2012). Using critical ethnography to explore issues among immigrant and refugee women seeking help for postpartum depression. Issues in Mental Health, 33, 735-742.
  84. O’Mahony, J. M., Donnelly, T. T., Raffin Bouchal, S., & Este, D. (2013). Cultural background and socioeconomic influence among immigrant and refugee women coping with postpartum depression. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 15, 2, 300-314,, DOI: 10.1007/s10903-012-9663-x
  85. Orr, S. T., & Miller, C. A. (1995). Maternal depressive symptoms and the risk of poor pregnancy outcome: Review of the literature and preliminary findings. Epidemiologic Reviews, 17, 165-171.
  86. Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D Scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385-401,, DOI: 10.1177/014662167700100306
  87. Rahman, A., Iqbal, Z., & Harrington, R. (2003). Life events, social support and depression in childbirth: Perspectives from a rural community in the developing world. Psychological Medicine, 33, 1161-1167.
  88. Reitmanova, S., & Gustafson, D. L. (2008). “They can’t understand it”: Maternity health and care needs of immigrant Muslim women in St. John’s, Newfoundland. Journal of Maternal and Child Health, 12, 101-111,, DOI: 10.1007/s10995-007-0213-4
  89. Rodrigues, M., Patel, V., & Jaswal, S., et al. (2003). Listening to mothers: Qualitative studies on motherhood and depression from Goa, India. Social Science & Medicine, 57, 1797-1806,, DOI: 10.1016/S0277-9536(03)00062-5
  90. Ryder, A. G., Yang, J., Zhu, X., Yao, S., Yi, J., Heine, S. J., & Bagby, R. M. (2008). The cultural shaping of depression: Somatic symptoms in China, psychological symptoms in North America? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117, 300-313,, DOI: 10.1037/0021-843X.117.2.300
  91. Schraufnagel, T. J., Wagner, A. W., Miranda, J., & Roy-Byrne, P. P. (2006). Treating minority patients with depression and anxiety: What does the evidence tell us? General Hospital Psychiatry, 28, 27-36,, DOI: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2005.07.002
  92. Seguin, L., Potvin, L., St Denis, M., & Loiselle, J. (1999). Depressive symptoms in the late postpartum among low socioeconomic status women. Birth, 26, 157-163,, DOI: 10.1046/j.1523-536x.1999.00157.x
  93. Small, R., Lumley, J., & Yelland, J. (2003). Cross-cultural experiences of maternal depression: Associations and contributing factors for Vietnamese, Turkish and Filipino immigrant women in Victoria, Australia. Ethnicity & Health, 8, 3,189-206,, DOI: 10.1080/1355785032000136416
  94. Sosta, E., Tomasoni, L. R., Frusca, T., Triglia, M., & Pirali, F., et al. (2008). Preterm delivery risk in migrants in Italy: An observational prospective study. Journal of Travel Medicine, 15, 243-247,, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2008-1160.
  95. Spanier, G. B. (1976). Measuring dyadic adjustment: New scales for assessing the quality of marriage and similar dyads. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 38, 15-28.
  96. Stewart, D. E., Gagnon, A. J., Merry, L. A., & Dennis, C. (2012). Risk factors and health profiles of recent migrant women who experienced violence associated with pregnancy. Journal of Women’s Health, 21, 1100-1106,, DOI: 10.1089/jwh.2011.3415
  97. Stewart, D. E., Gagnon, A. J., Saucier, J. F., Wahoush, O., & Dougherty, G. (2008). Postpartum depression symptoms in newcomers. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 53, 2, 121-124.
  98. Stuchbery, M., Matthey, S., & Barnett, B. (1998) Postnatal depression and social supports in Vietnamese, Arabic and Anglo-Celtic mothers. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 33, 483-490,, DOI: 10.1007/s001270050083
  99. Templeton, J., Velleman, R., & Persaud, A., et al. (2003). The experiences of postnatal depression in women from black and minority ethnic communities in Wiltshire, UK. Ethnicity & Health, 8, 207-221,, DOI: 10.1080/1355785032000136425
  100. Teng, L., Blackmore, E. R., & Stewart, D. E. (2007). Healthcare worker’s perceptions of barriers to care by immigrant women with postpartum depression: An exploratory qualitative study. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 10, 93-101,, DOI: 10.1007/s00737-007-0176-x
  101. Urquia, M., O’Campo, P., & Heaman, M. (2012). Revisiting the immigrant paradox in reproductive health. The roles of duration of residence and ethnicity. Social Science and Medicine, 74, 10, 1610-1621,, DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.02.013
  102. Velotti, P., Castellano, R., & Zavattini, G. C. (2011). Adjustment of couples following childbirth. The role of generalized and specific states of mind in an Italian sample. European Psychologist, 16, 1, 1-10,, DOI: 10.1027/1016-9040/a000022
  103. Yoshida, K., Marks, M. N., & Kibe, N., et al. (1997). Postnatal depression in Japanese women who have given birth in England. Journal of Affective Disorders, 43, 69-77,, DOI: 10.1016/S0165-0327(96)01419-X
  104. Ward, C. (2003). Migrant mothers and the role of social support when child rearing. Contemporary Nurse, 16, 74-82.
  105. Weller, S., Baer, R., Garcia de Alba Garcia, J., & Salcedo Rocha, A. (2008). Susto and nervios: Expressions for stress and depression. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 32, 3, 406-420,, DOI: 10.1007/s11013-008-9101-7
  106. World Health Report (WHO, 2005). Make every mother and child count. Zayas, L. H., & Busch-Rossnagel, N. A. (1992). Pregnant Hispanic women: A mental health study. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 9, 515-521. Zelkowitz, P., Saucier, J.-F., Wang, T., Katofsky, L., Valenzuela, M., & Westreich,
  107. R. (2008). Stability and change in depressive symptoms from pregnancy to two months postpartum in childbearing immigrant women. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 11, 1-11,, DOI: 10.1007/s00737-008-0219-y

Simona Di Folco, Giulio Cesare Zavattini, Post-partum depression in immigrant mothers: A review of the literature in "MALTRATTAMENTO E ABUSO ALL’INFANZIA" 2/2015, pp. 55-85, DOI:10.3280/MAL2015-002004


FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content