Click here to download

Industry 4.0 technologies and organizational design - Evidence from 15 Italian cases
Author/s: Emanuela Shaba, Marco Guerci, Silvia Gilardi, Emilio Bartezzaghi 
Year:  2019 Issue: Language: English 
Pages:  29 Pg. 9-37 FullText PDF:  472 KB
DOI:  10.3280/SO2019-001001
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 

Current literature on Industry 4.0 technologies has mainly explored their relationship to the employment dynamics, or to the required competencies and emerging roles. This paper is complementing current literature with a perspective focused on organizational design. The aim of the paper is to explore how organizations are re-designed when Industry 4.0 technologies are implemented. The paper is based on 15 case studies carried out in Italian manufacturing companies and data was collected from 70 semi-structured interviews to relevant roles involved in the implementation of digital technologies. Results show that, when Industry 4.0 technologies are implemented, organizations are redesigned following a employee control-oriented or following a employee commitment-oriented organizational design. These results show that organizational design is the result of decisions, and is not determined by technology. The implications of our findings are presented and discussed.
Keywords: Industry 4.0 technologies, organizational design, control, commitment

  1. Acemoglu, D. (2002), “Technical change, inequality and the labor market”, Journal of Economic Literature, 40(1): 7–72.
  2. Acemoglu, D. (2007), “Equilibrium Bias of Technology”, Econometric Society, 75(5): 1371-1409.
  3. Anand, N., Daft, R. L. (2007), “What is the right organization design?”, Organizational Dynamics, 36(4): 329-344.
  4. Basaglia, S., Caporarello, L., Magni, M., Pennarola, F. (2010), “IT knowledge integration capability and team performance: The role of team climate”, International Journal of Information Management, 30: 542–551.
  5. Bayo-Moriones, A., Margarita, B., Fernando, L. (2015), “Are new work practices applied together with ICT and AMT?”, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 28(4): 553-580.
  6. Berger, P.L. (1974), Pyramids of sacrifice, New York, Basic Books.
  7. Bonomi, A.(2018), “ Innovazione, digitalizzazione e lavoro emergente nella smart city di Milano. Inchiesta sul lavoro nella neofabbrica finanziaria”, in Cipriani, A., Gramolati, A., G., Mari, G. (eds.), Il lavoro 4.0. La Quarta Rivoluzione industriale e le trasformazioni delle attività lavorative, Firenze, Firenze University Press.
  8. Brennan, L., Ferdows, K., Godsell, J., Golini, R., Keegan, R., Kinkel, S., Taylor, M. (2015), “Manufacturing in the world: where next?”, International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 35(9): 1253–1274.
  9. Brynjolfsson, E., McAfee, A. (2017), The second machine age: Progress and prosperity in a time of brilliant technologies, New York, Norton.
  10. Butera, F.(2018), “Industria 4.0. come progettazione partecipata di sistemi socio-tecnici in rete”, in Cipriani, A., Gramolati, A., G., Mari, G. (eds.), Il lavoro 4.0. La Quarta Rivoluzione industriale e le trasformazioni delle attività lavorative, Firenze, Firenze University Press.
  11. Caruso, L. (2017), “Digital innovation and the fourth industrial revolution: epochal social changes?”, AI & SOCIETY, 1-14.
  12. Daft, L.R., Murphy, J., Willmott H. (2017), Organization Theory & Design: An international Perspective, 3rd edition, Andover, Hampshire, Cengage Learning Emea.
  13. Dewet, T., Jones, G. R. (2001),”The role of information technology in organization: A review, a model, and assessment”, Journal of Management, 27: 313–346.
  14. Dworschak, B., Zaiser, H. (2014), “Competences for cyber-physical systems in manufacturing”, Procedia CIRP, 25: 345-350.
  15. Edwards, R. (1979), Contested Terrain: The Transformation of the Workplace in the Twentieth Century, New York, Basic Books.
  16. Eisenhardt, K.M. (1989), “Building theory from case study research”, The Academy of Management Review.14(4): 532-550
  17. Fondazione Claudio Sabattini & Associazione Punto Rosso. (2018), Industry 4.0 -- Position paper,
  18. Fried, Y., Hollenbeck, J. R., Slowik, L. H., Tiegs, R. B., Ben-David, H. A. (1999), “Changes in job decision latitude: The influence of personality and interpersonal satisfaction”, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 54: 233-243.
  19. Gorecky, D., Schmitt, M., Loskyll, M., Zuehlke, D. (2014), “Human-machine-interaction in the industry 4.0 era”, In Proceedings – 2014 12th IEEE international conference on industrial informatics, 289–294.
  20. Guest, G., MacQueen, K. M., Namey, E. E. (2012), Applied thematic analysis, California, Thousand Oaks.
  21. Hirsch-Kreinsen, H. (2016), “Digitization of industrial work: development paths and prospects”, Journal for Labour Market Research, 49(1): 1-14.
  22. Hunter, J. E., Hunter, R. F. (1984), “Validity and Utility of alternative predictors of job performance”, Psychological Bulletin, 96: 72-98.
  23. Kelly, E. (2015), Introduction: Business ecosystems come of age, Deloitte University Press.
  24. King, N. (2004), “Using templates in the qualitative analysis of text”, in Cassell, C., Symon, G. (eds.), Essential Guide to Qualitative Methods in Organizational Research: 256-270, London, England: Sage.
  25. Kozlowski, S. W. J., Ilgen, D. R. (2006), “Enhancing the effectiveness of work groups and teams”, Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 7: 77-124.
  26. Laboratorio Cisl Industria 4.0. (2017), Le Tecnologie e il Lavoro che Cambia, Uno studio della Cisl, --
  27. Lawler, E. E. (1969), “Job design and employee motivation”, Personnel Psychology, 22: 426-435.
  28. Malone, T. W., Crowston, K. (1994), “The interdisciplinary study of coordination”, ACM Computing Surveys, 26: 87-119
  29. Masino, G. (2005), Le imprese oltre il fordismo. Retorica, illusioni,realtà, Roma, Carocci.
  30. Mayring P., Brunner E. (2007), “Qualitative Inhaltsanalyse”, in Buber R., Holzmüller H.H. (eds), Qualitative marktforschung. Konzepte, methoden, analysen: 669-680, Wiesbaden, Gabler.
  31. Morgeson F. P., Humphrey, S. E. (2006), “The Work Design Questionnaire (WDQ): Developing and Validating a Comprehensive Measure for Assessing Job Design and the Nature of Work”, Journal of applied psychology, 91: 1321-1339.
  32. Morgeson F. P., Humphrey, S. E. (2008), “Job and team design: Toward a more integrative conceptualization of work design”, Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 39-91.
  33. Negrelli, S., Pacetti, V. (2018), “Tecnologie, lavoro, organizzazione nell’Industria 4.0”, in Cipriani, A., Gramolati, A., G., Mari, G. (eds.), Il lavoro 4.0. La Quarta Rivoluzione industriale e le trasformazioni delle attività lavorative, Firenze, Firenze University Press.
  34. Nemeth, C., O’Connor, M., Klock, P., Cook, R. (2006), “Discovering healthcare cognition: The use of cognitive artifacts to reveal cognitive work”, Organization Studies, 27: 1011–1035.
  35. Osservatorio SM. (2015), Osservatorio Smart Manufacturing, Politecnico di Milano, School of Management,
  36. Parker, S.K., Wall, T.D., Cordery, J.L. (2001), “Future work design research and practice: Towards an elaborated model of work design”, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74: 413–440.
  37. Parker, S.K., Van der Browck, A., Holman, D. (2017), “Work Design Influences: A synthesis of multilevel factors that affect the design of jobs”, The Academy of Management Annals, 11(1): 267–308.
  38. Romero, D., Bernus, P., Noran, O., Stahre, J., Fast-Berglund, Å. (2016), “The Operator 4.0: human cyber-physical systems & adaptive automation towards human-automation symbiosis work systems”, in IFIP International Conference on Advances in Production Management Systems: 677-686
  39. Salento, A. (2018), “Industria 4.0 e determinismo tecnologico”, Industria 4.0: Oltre il determinismo tecnologico, Bologna, TAO Digital Library
  40. Sims, H. P., Szilagyi, A. D., Keller, R. T. (1976), “Job Characteristics Inventory”, Academy of management Journal, 19: 195-212.
  41. Stock, T., Seliger, G. (2016), “Opportunities of Sustainable Manufacturing in Industry 4.0”, Procedia CIRP, 40: 536–541.
  42. Strauss, A., Corbin, J. (1998), Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory, Thousand Oaks, Sage Publications.
  43. Trist, E.L. (1981), “The sociotechnical perspective”, in. A.H. Van de Ven, W.F. Joyce (eds.), Perspectives on organization design and behavior, New York, Wiley.
  44. Venkatesh, V., Bala, H., Sykes, T. A. (2010), “Impacts of information and communications technology implementation on employee’s jobs in service organizations in India: A multimethod longitudinal field study”, Production and Operations Management, 19:591–613.
  45. Vitali, G.(2016), “ La via italiana nell’applicazione di industria 4.0”, in Torino Nord ovest, rapporto di ricerca, Factory of the future, Tecnologia, competenze e fattore umano nella fabbrica digitale, Guerini e Associati
  46. Wall, T. D., Corbett, J. M., Clegg, C. W., Jackson, P. R., Martin, R. (1990), “Advanced manufacturing technology and work design: Towards a theoretical framework”, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 11: 201– 219.
  47. Waschull, S., Bokhorst, J.A., Wortmann, J.C. (2017), “Impact of technology on work: technical functionalities that give rise to new job designs”, IFIP International Conference on Advances in Production Management Systems, 274-281.
  48. Zhou, L., Chong, A. Y. L., Ngai, E. W. T. (2015), “Supply chain management in the era of the internet of things”, International Journal of Production Economics, 159: 1–3.

Emanuela Shaba, Marco Guerci, Silvia Gilardi, Emilio Bartezzaghi, in "STUDI ORGANIZZATIVI " 1/2019, pp. 9-37, DOI:10.3280/SO2019-001001


FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content