Liminal Positions Between Autonomy and Dependency. The Case of Banking and Insurance Sector

Author/s Andrea Bottalico, Annalisa Murgia
Publishing Year 2023 Issue 2022/2 Language Italian
Pages 35 P. 35-69 File size 374 KB
DOI 10.3280/SO2022-002002
DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation click here

Below, you can see the article first page

If you want to buy this article in PDF format, you can do it, following the instructions to buy download credits

Article preview

FrancoAngeli is member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc (PILA), a not-for-profit association which run the CrossRef service enabling links to and from online scholarly content.

The debate on liminality in organisational contexts has provided relevant in-sights and contributions for the interpretation of the changing dynamics of con-temporary work, representing ambiguous transitions and positionings. This is even more relevant in the case of solo self-employment, which is accompanied by a di-versity of positions oscillating between autonomy and heteronomy, corresponding to different forms of liminality linked to both individual characteristics and organi-sational contexts in which individuals perform their activities. In the light of this debate, the article investigates the case of self-employment in the financial sector and makes a twofold contribution to the debate on liminality in organisational contexts. First, the concept of liminality is extended to a largely unexplored sector, where forms of work on the boundary between self-employment and employment are increasingly present. Second, the concept of liminality itself is rediscussed ac-cording to the scientific literature and the research conducted - since it does not necessarily represent a condition of transition between two different states but can also assume the characteristics of a permanent condition. In the conclusions, with the aim of highlighting the variety of liminal experiences inherent in contemporary work, a conceptual scheme is discussed to show some of the main trends charac-terising the transformation of employment relationships in a rapidly changing and increasingly fluid labour market.

Keywords: Liminality; self-employment; dependent employment; autonomy; heteronomy; financial sector.

  1. Armano E. (2011), “I lavoratori della conoscenza tra informalità e ambivalenza dei networks”, Studi organizzativi, XIII, 2: 77-102
  2. Arthur M.B., Rousseau D.M. (1996), The Boundaryless Career, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  3. Arum R., Mueller W. (2004), The Reemergence of Self-Employment: A Comparative Study of Self-Employment Dynamics and Social Inequality, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  4. Azaïs C., Dieuaide P. e Kesselman D. (2017), “Zone Grise d’emploi, Pouvoir de l’employeur et Espace Public: Une Illustration à Partir Du Cas Uber”. Relations industrielles, 72: 433–456.
  5. Baglioni A., Cappellari L., Faioli M., Lucifora C., Vigani D. e Villar E.(2019), Lavorare in Banca: Un Mondo in Evoluzione, Osservatorio Monetario, 3.
  6. Bamber M., Allen-Collinson J. e McCormack J. (2017), “Occupational limbo, transitional liminality and permanent liminality: New conceptual distinctions”, Human Relations, 70(12): 1514-1537).
  7. Beech N. (2011), “Liminality and the practices of identity reconstruction”, Human relations. 64(2): 285-302.
  8. Beccalli E., Girardone C. (2016), Banking in Italy, In Beck T. e Casu B., a cura di, The Palgrave Handbook of European Banking, London: Palgrave Macmillan.
  9. Bisom-Rapp S., Coiquaud U. (2017), “The Role of the State towards the Grey Zone of Employment: Eyes on Canada and the United States”, Revue Interventions économiques, 58.
  10. Bögenhold, D., & Klinglmair, A. (2016), “Independent work, modern organizations and entrepreneurial labor: Diversity and hybridity of freelancers and self-employment”, Journal of Management & Organization, 22(6), 843-858.
  11. Bologna S. (2018), The Rise of the European Self-Employed Workforce, Milan: Mimesis International.
  12. Bottalico A (2020). “Il lavoro autonomo nel settore bancario e assicurativo. Il caso di Milano”, Rapporto di ricerca.
  13. Borg E., Söderlund J. (2015), “Liminality Competence: An Interpretative Study of Mobile Project Workers’ Conception of Liminality at Work”, Management Learning, 46: 260–279.
  14. Borghi V. (2001), “Complessità versus flessibilità. Appunti per un programma di ricerca sulle trasformazioni del lavoro”, Sociologia del lavoro, 80: 89-110.
  15. Boyatzis R.E. (1998), Transforming Qualitative Information: Thematic Analysis and Code Development, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
  16. Budtz-Jørgensen J., Johnsen C.G. e Sørensen B.M. (2019), “Against Boundarylessness: The Liminal Career of the Flexible Employee”, Organization, 26: 917–935.
  17. Bureau M.C., Corsani A. (2015), “Du Désir d’autonomie à l’indépendance”, La nouvelle revue du travail, 5.
  18. Cappelli P., Keller J. (2013), “Classifying Work in the New Economy”, Academy of Management Review, 38: 575–596.
  19. Coccorese P., Santucci L. (2020), “Banking Competition and Bank Size: Some Evidence from Italy”, Journal of Economics and Finance, 44: 278–299.
  20. Conen W., Schippers J. (2019), Self-Employment as Precarious Work: A European Perspective, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
  21. Costantino N. (2016), “Luciano Gallino e le sfide di automazione, flessibilità, precarietà”, Studi organizzativi, XVIII, 2: 130-138.
  22. Cross D., Kinnie N. e Swart J. (2015), “The Liminality of Liminality: A Systematic Review of Organisationally Liminal Spaces. APROS/EGOS Conference, 1: 1–12.
  23. Cross D., Swart J. (2020), “Professional Fluidity: Reconceptualising the Professional Status of Self-Employed Neo-Professionals”, Organization Studies.
  24. Cutolo D., Tagliaventi M.R. (2020), “Betwixt and between: La Liminalità Nelle Nuove Forme Di Lavoro”, Studi organizzativi, XXII: 1.
  25. Czarniawska B., Mazza C. (2003), “Consulting as a Liminal Space”, Human Relations, 56: 267–290.
  26. Dekker F. (2010), “Self-Employed without Employees: Managing Risks in Modern Capitalism”, Politics & Policy, 38: 765–788.
  27. Deleuze G. (1992), “Postscript on the Societies of Control”, October, 59: 3–7.
  28. Du Gay P. (1996), Consumption and Identity at Work, London: SAGE.
  29. Garcia-Lorenzo L., Donnelly P., Sell-Trujillo L. e Imas J.M. (2018), “Liminal Entrepreneuring: The Creative Practices of Nascent Necessity Entrepreneurs”, Organization Studies, 39: 373–395.
  30. Garsten C. (1999), “Betwixt and between: Temporary Employees as Liminal Subjects in Flexible Organizations”, Organization studies, 20, 601–617.
  31. Gumbrell-McCormick, R and Hyman, R (2018 [2013]), Trade unions in Western Europe: hard times, hard choices, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  32. Ibarra H., Obodaru O. (2016), “Betwixt and between Identities: Liminal Experience in Contemporary Careers”, Research in Organizational Behavior, 36:47–64.
  33. Kallinikos J. (2003), “Work, Human Agency and Organizational Forms: An Anatomy of Fragmentation”, Organization Studies, 24: 595–618.
  34. Keune M. (2013), “Trade Union Responses to Precarious Work in Seven European Countries”, International Journal of Labour Research, 5: 59–78.
  35. Muehlberger U., Pasqua, S. (2009), “Workers on the Border between Employment and Self-Employment”, Review of Social Economy, 67:2, 201–228.
  36. Murgia A., Bozzon R., Digennaro P., Mezihorak P., Mondon-Navazo M., Borghi P. (2020), “Hybrid Areas of Work between Employment and Self-employment: Emerging Challenges and Future Research Directions”, Frontiers in Sociology, Specialty Section: Work, Employment and Organizations, 4, 86.
  37. Murgia A, Pulignano V. (2021), “Neither precarious nor entrepreneur: The subjective experience of hybrid self-employed workers”, Economic and Industrial Democracy, 42(4): 1351-1377.
  38. Palmisano S. (2006), Uguali e Diverse? Due Banche a Confronto, Roma: Carocci.
  39. Parisi T., Curzi Y., Albano R., Tirabeni L. (2018), “Perceived autonomy and discretion of mobile workers”, Studi organizzativi : XX, 2: 31-61.
  40. Rose N. (1990), Governing the Soul: The Shaping of the Private Self, London: Routledge.
  41. Schulze Buschoff K., Schmidt C. (2009), “Adapting Labour Law and Social Security to the Needs of the “new Self-Employed” - Comparing the UK, Germany and the Netherlands”, Journal of European Social Policy, 19: 147–159.
  42. Söderlund J., Borg E. (2018), “Liminality in Management and Organization Studies: Process, Position and Place”, International Journal of Management Reviews, 20: 880–902.
  43. Supiot A. (1999), Au-Delà de l’emploi, Parigi: Editions Flammarion.
  44. Turner V. (1995), The Ritual Process : Structure and Anti-Structure, New York, Aldine de Gruyter.
  45. Van Gennep A. (1960), The Rites of Passage, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
  46. Vigani D. (2019), L'andamento dell'occupazione nel settore bancario, In Baglioni A., Cappellari L., Faioli M., Lucifora C., Vigani D. e Villar E., a cura di, Lavorare in Banca: Un Mondo in Evoluzione, Osservatorio Monetario, 3, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore.
  47. Ybema S., Beech N., Ellis N. (2011), “Transitional and perpetual liminality: an identity practice perspective”, Anthropology Southern Africa, 34 (I&2): 21-29

Andrea Bottalico, Annalisa Murgia, Posizionamenti liminali tra autonomia e dipendenza. Il caso del settore bancario e assicurativo in "STUDI ORGANIZZATIVI " 2/2022, pp 35-69, DOI: 10.3280/SO2022-002002