Click here to download

How do we perceive incomplete displays in retail outlets?
Journal Title: MERCATI E COMPETITIVITÀ 
Author/s: Daniele Porcheddu 
Year:  2013 Issue: Language: Italian 
Pages:  23 Pg. 59-81 FullText PDF:  973 KB
DOI:  10.3280/MC2013-004004
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 


This study evaluates the existence of a phenomenon of asymmetric perception in consumers with regards to the degree of incompleteness of displays in retail outlets. A sample of 159 right-handed individuals was recruited for a laboratory experiment that involved the presentation of a series of images which compared two displays, one to the left and the other to the right of the observer. The subjects were asked to identify, in free-viewing conditions, as rapidly and accurately as possible, which display was more incomplete. Our test revealed that individuals tend to perceive the display on the left to be more incomplete, even though the correct answers to the task were actually distributed in an equal manner between left and right. This bias towards the left, that occurred independently of the modality of presentation of the displays, is consistent with the predictions of the Theory of selective activation of the right hemisphere of the brain.
Keywords: Asymmetric perception, brain laterality Theory, display incompleteness, free-viewing approach; positioning of display, virtual aisle.
Jel Code: M31

  1. Chen P., Goedert K.M., Murray E., Kelly K., Ahmeti S., Barrett A.M. (2011). Spatial bias and right hemisphere function: Sex-specific changes with aging. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 17, 3: 455-462,, 10.1017/S135561771100004XDOI: 10.1017/S135561771100004X
  2. Cialdini R.B. (2001). Influence: Science and Practice. 4th ed. Needham Heights: (MA): Allyn & Bacon.
  3. Cohen M.S. (2008). Handedness Questionnaire. Testo disponibile al sito: http://www.brainmapping.org/shared/Edinburgh.php (ultimo accesso 13/07/2012).
  4. Corneo G., Jeanne O. (1997). Snobs, bandwagons, and the origin of social customs in consumer behaviour. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 32, 3: 333-347,, 10.1016/S0167-2681(96)00024-8DOI: 10.1016/S0167-2681(96)00024-8
  5. Crucian G.P., Berenbaum S.A. (1998). Sex Differences in Right Hemisphere Tasks. Brain and Cognition, 36, 3: 377-389,, 10.1006/brcg.1998.0999DOI: 10.1006/brcg.1998.0999
  6. Davidson R.J., Hugdahl K., a cura di (1998). Brain asymmetry. Cambridge (MA): MIT Press.
  7. Drèze X., Hoch S.J., Purk M.E. (1994). Shelf Management and Space Elasticity. Journal of Retailing, 70, 4: 301-326,, 10.1016/0022-4359(94)90002-7DOI: 10.1016/0022-4359(94)90002-7
  8. Eals M., Silverman I. (1994). The hunter-gatherer theory of spatial sex differences: Proximate factors mediating the female advantage in recall of object arrays. Ethology and Sociobiology, 15, 2: 95-105,, 10.1016/0162-3095(94)90020-5DOI: 10.1016/0162-3095(94)90020-5
  9. Eber N., Willinger M. (2009). Economisti in laboratorio. Bologna: il Mulino.
  10. Failla C.V., Sheppard D.M., Bradshaw J.L. (2003). Age and responding-hand related changes in performance of neurologically normal subjects on the line bisection and chimeric-faces tasks. Brain and Cognition, 52, 3: 353-363,, 10.1016/S0278-2626(03)00181-7DOI: 10.1016/S0278-2626(03)00181-7
  11. Faul F., Erdfelder E., Lang A.-G., Buchner A. (2007). G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 39, 2: 175-191,, 10.1684/pnv.2009.0175DOI: 10.1684/pnv.2009.0175
  12. Fitzsimons G.J. (2000). Consumer Response to Stockouts. Journal of Consumer Research, 27, 2: 249-266., 10.1086/314323DOI: 10.1086/314323
  13. Foxe J.J., McCourt M.E., Javitt D.C. (2003). Right hemisphere control of visuospatial attention: Line bisection judgments evaluated with high-density electrical mapping and source analysis. NeuroImage, 19, 3: 710-726,, 10.1016/S1053-8119(03)00057-0DOI: 10.1016/S1053-8119(03)00057-0
  14. Frank R.E., Massy W.F. (1970). Shelf position and space effects on sales. Journal of Marketing Research, 7, 1: 59-66.
  15. Geary D.C. (1995). Sexual Selection and Sex Differences in Spatial Cognition. Learning and Individual Differences, 7, 4: 289-301,, 10.1016/1041-6080(95)90003-9DOI: 10.1016/1041-6080(95)90003-9
  16. Ginsburg N. (1991). Numerosity estimation as a function of stimulus organization. Perception, 20, 5: 681-686,, 10.1068/p200681DOI: 10.1068/p200681
  17. Ginsburg N., Goldstein S.R. (1987). Measurement of visual cluster. American Journal of Psychology, 100, 2: 193-203,, 10.2307/1422403DOI: 10.2307/1422403
  18. Halpern D.F. (2000). Sex differences and cognitive abilities. Mahwah (NJ): Lawrence Erlbaum.
  19. Hellige J.B. (1995). Hemispheric asymmetry for components of visual information processing. In: Davidson, R.J., Hugdahl K., a cura di, Brain asymmetry. pp. 99-121. Cambridge: MIT Press.
  20. Hugdahl K. (2000). Lateralisation of cognitive processes in the brain. Acta Psychologica, 105, 2-3: 211-235,, 10.1016/S0001-6918(00)00062-7DOI: 10.1016/S0001-6918(00)00062-7
  21. Hugdahl K. (2005). Symmetry and asymmetry in the human brain. European Review, 13, 2: 119-133,, 10.1017/S106279870500070DOI: 10.1017/S106279870500070
  22. Hugdahl K., Davidson R.J., a cura di (2003). The asymmetrical brain. Cambridge (MA): MIT Press.
  23. Jäncke L., Steinmetz H. (2003). Anatomical Brain Asymmetries and Their Relevance for Functional Asymmetries. In: Hugdahl K., Davidson R.J., a cura di, The asymmetrical brain. pp. 187-229. Cambridge (MA): MIT Press. 9, 4: 435-448,, 10.1037/0894-4105.9.4.435DOI: 10.1037/0894-4105.9.4.435
  24. Luh K.E., Redl J., Levy J. (1994). Left- and Right-Handers See People Differently Free-Vision Perceptual Asymmetries for Chimeric Stimuli. Brain and Cognition, 25, 2: 141-160,, 10.1006/brcg.1994.1028DOI: 10.1006/brcg.1994.1028
  25. Luh K.E., Rueckert L.M., Levy J. (1991). Perceptual Asymmetries for Free Viewing of Several Types of Chimeric Stimuli. Brain and Cognition, 16, 1: 83-103,, 10.1016/0278-2626(91)90087-ODOI: 10.1016/0278-2626(91)90087-O
  26. Mattingley J.B., Bradshaw J.L., Nettleton N.C., Bradshaw J.A. (1994). Can task specific perceptual bias be distinguished from unilateral neglect? Neuropsychologia, 32, 7: 805-817,, 10.1016/0028-3932(94)90019-1DOI: 10.1016/0028-3932(94)90019-1
  27. McGlone J., Davidson W. (1973). The relation between cerebral speech laterality and spatial ability with special reference to sex and hand preference. Neuropsychologia, 11, 1: 105-113,, 10.1016/0028-3932(73)90070-5DOI: 10.1016/0028-3932(73)90070-5
  28. Nicholls M.E.R., Bradshaw J.L., Mattingley J.B. (1999). Free-viewing perceptual asymmetries for the judgement of brightness, numerosity and size. Neuropsychologia, 37, 3: 307-314,, 10.1016/S0028-3932(98)00074-8DOI: 10.1016/S0028-3932(98)00074-8
  29. Nicholls M.E.R., Roberts G.R. (2002). Can free-viewing perceptual asymmetries be explained by scanning, pre-motor or attentional biases? Cortex, 38, 2: 113-136,, 10.1016/S0010-9452(08)70645-2DOI: 10.1016/S0010-9452(08)70645-2
  30. Oldfield R.C. (1971). The assessment and analysis of handedness: The Edinburgh Inventory. Neuropsychologia, 9, 1: 97-113,, 10.1016/0028-3932(71)90067-4DOI: 10.1016/0028-3932(71)90067-4
  31. Parker J.R., Lehmann D.R. (2011). When Shelf-Based Scarcity Impacts Consumer Preferences. Journal of Retailing, 87, 2: 142-155,, 10.1016/j.jretai.2011.02.001DOI: 10.1016/j.jretai.2011.02.001
  32. Piazza M., Mechelli A, Price C.J., Butterworth B. (2006). Exact and approximate judgements of visual and auditory numerosity: An fMRI study. Brain Research, 1106, 1: 177-188,, 10.1016/j.brainres.2006.05.104DOI: 10.1016/j.brainres.2006.05.104
  33. Porcheddu D., Usai A., Venturi A. (2011). Nonverbal stimuli in a virtual aisle: does the shelf you choose matter? International Review of Retail, Distribution & Consumer Research, 21, 3: 215-231,, 10.1080/09593969.2011.578797DOI: 10.1080/09593969.2011.578797
  34. Razzouk N.Y., Seitz V., Kumar V. (2002). The impact of perceived display completeness/incompleteness on shoppers’ in-store selection of merchandise: an empirical study. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 9, 1: 31-35,, 10.1016/S0969-6989(01)00008-XDOI: 10.1016/S0969-6989(01)00008-X
  35. Rettie R., Brewer C. (2000). The verbal and visual components of package design. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 9, 1: 56-70,, 10.1108/10610420010316339DOI: 10.1108/10610420010316339
  36. Sasaki H., Morimoto A., Nishio A., Matsuura S. (2007). Right hemisphere specialization for color detection. Brain and Cognition, 64, 3: 282-289,, 10.1016/j.bandc.2007.03.010DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2007.03.010
  37. Söderlund M. (2011). Other customers in the retail environment and their impact on the customer’s evaluation of the retailer. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 18, 3: 174-182., 10.1016/j.jretconser.2010.09.006DOI: 10.1016/j.jretconser.2010.09.006
  38. Springer S.P., Deutsch G. (1995). Left Brain, Right Brain (4th ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman & Co.
  39. van Herpen E., Pieters R., Zeelenberg M. (2009). When demand accelerates demand: Trailing the bandwagon. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 19, 3: 302-312,, 10.1016/j.jcps.2009.01.00DOI: 10.1016/j.jcps.2009.01.00
  40. Varley R. (2006). Retail Product Management. Buying and Merchandising, 2nd ed. London: Routledge.

Daniele Porcheddu, How do we perceive incomplete displays in retail outlets? in "MERCATI E COMPETITIVITÀ" 4/2013, pp. 59-81, DOI:10.3280/MC2013-004004

   

FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content