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Les organisations internationales dans la "gouvernance" mondiale des migrations
Titolo Rivista: MONDI MIGRANTI 
Autori/Curatori: Antoine Pécoud 
Anno di pubblicazione:  2015 Fascicolo: Lingua: Francese 
Numero pagine:  24 P. 7-30 Dimensione file:  115 KB
DOI:  10.3280/MM2015-003001
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Les organisations internationales (OI) sont devenues, depuis environ deux décennies, des acteurs importants dans les politiques migratoires. Même si ces dernières restent étroitement associées à la souveraineté des Etats, les OI sont parvenues à développer leurs propres conceptions sur la manière dont les flux migratoires devraient être gouvernés (ou « gérés ») et, dans certains cas, à influencer l’élaboration des politiques et à s’impliquer dans leur mise en ouvre. Les recherches dans ce domaine restent rares, cependant. A l’exception du Haut-Commissariat pour les réfugiés (Hcr), les OI n’ont guère fait l’objet d’analyses approfondies et de grandes incertitudes demeurent donc, non seulement sur leur influence réelle, mais aussi sur le contexte politique dans lequel elles agissent et sur le résultat de leurs initiatives. Selon certaines interprétations, l’implication des OI permettrait une meilleure coopération internationale et une attention plus grande à des enjeux non-sécuritaires et non-utilitaristes, comme les droits humains ou le développement des régions de départ. A l’inverse, d’autres analyses concluent que les OI tendent à s’aligner sur les intérêts et les priorités des Etats développés, et que leurs interventions ne sauraient donc modifier les politiques migratoires actuelles. Il s’agit donc de questionner l’autonomie des OI, ainsi que l’écart entre leurs objectifs déclarés et leurs pratiques. Il s’agit également de comprendre la manière dont les interventions des OI s’insèrent dans un cadre institutionnel et politique complexe, caractérisé par des relations parfois problématiques entre elles, ainsi qu’entre les OI et d’autres mécanismes internationaux de coopération. Mots-Clés: politiques migratoires, organisations internationales, gouvernance mondiale des migrations


Keywords: Migration Policy, Global migration governance, International Organisations

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Antoine Pécoud, in "MONDI MIGRANTI" 3/2015, pp. 7-30, DOI:10.3280/MM2015-003001

   

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