Click here to download

Consumers’ intention to buy generic drugs: Evidences from the Italian setting
Journal Title: MERCATI & COMPETITIVITÀ 
Author/s: Cristina Zerbini, Donata Tania Vergura, Beatrice Luceri 
Year:  2017 Issue: Language: English 
Pages:  18 Pg. 159-176 FullText PDF:  158 KB
DOI:  10.3280/MC2017-001009
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 


The paper aims to understand the determinants that may encourage consumer acceptance of generic drugs. In particular, attitude, perceived risk and brand sensitivity are considered as relevant predictors of the intention to buy. Moreover, the study aims to investigate: the effect of perceived risk on brand sensitivity and attitude towards generic drugs; and the mediation role of attitude and brand sensitivity in the risk-intention relationship. The proposed conceptual model was tested through structural equation modelling using data collected with an online survey from a sample of 742 people who bought drugs. All the hypothesized relationships are supported. Results contribute both theoretically and practically to the understanding of generic substitution.
Keywords: Generic drugs, purchase intention, perceived risk, attitude, brand sensitivity, structural equation modelling.

  1. Field A. (2000). Discovering statistics using SPSS for windows. London: Sage.
  2. Alrasheedy A., Ahmad Hassali M., Stewart K., Kong D., Aljadhey H., Mohamed Ibrahim M. and Al-Tamimi S. (2014). Patient knowledge, perceptions, and acceptance of generic medicines: a comprehensive review of the current literature. Patient Intelligence [E], 6: 1-29,, 10.2147/PI.S46737DOI: 10.2147/PI.S46737
  3. Ajzen I. (2011). Constructing a theory of planned behavior questionnaire. Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved.
  4. Ajzen I. (2001). Nature and operation of attitudes. Annual Review of Psychology, 52: 27-58,
  5. Ajzen I. and Fishbein M. (1973). Attitudinal and normative variables as predictors of specific behaviors. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 27(1): 41-57,
  6. Anderson J.C. and Gerbing D.W. (1988). Structural equation modelling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bullettin, 103(3): 411-423,, 10.1037//0033-2909.103.3.411DOI: 10.1037//0033-2909.103.3.411
  7. Andersson K., Bergström G., Petzold M.G. and Carlsten A. (2007). Impact of a generic substitution reform on patients’ and society’s expenditure for pharmaceuticals. Health Policy, 81(2): 376-384,
  8. Assogenerici (2016). Il farmaco generic: numeri e dimensioni -- http://www.assogenerici.org/articolihome/AGGIORNAMENTO_DATI_MARZO_2016.pdf.
  9. Bagozzi R.P. and Heatherton T.F. (1994). A general approach to representing multifaceted personality constructs: Application to state selfesteem. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 1(1): 35-67,, 10.1080/10705519409539961.DOI: 10.1080/10705519409539961.
  10. Bauer R.A. (1960). Consumer Behavior as Risk Taking, in R.S. Hancock, ed., Proceedings of the 43rd Conference of the American Marketing Association, American Marketing Association, Chicago.
  11. Bearden W. O. and Mason J. B. (1978). Consumer-perceived risk and attitudes toward generically prescribed drugs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 63(6): 741-746,, 10.1037/0021-9010.63.6.741.DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.63.6.741.
  12. Bollen K.A. (1989). Structural equations with latent variables. New York, Wiley.
  13. Browne M.W. and Cudeck R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. Sage Focus Editions, 154: 136-36,, 10.1002/9781118619179.DOI: 10.1002/9781118619179.
  14. Cortina J. (1993). What is coefficient alpha? An examination of theory and applications. Journal of Applied Psychology and Aging, 78(1): 98-104.
  15. Eagly A.H. and Chaiken S. (1993). The psychology of attitudes. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers.
  16. Figueiras K.J., Alves N.C., Marcelino D., Cortes M.A., Weinman J. and Horne R. (2009). Assessing lay beliefs about generic medicines: Development of the generic medicines scale. Psychology, health & medicine, 14(3): 311-321,, 10.1080/13548500802613043.DOI: 10.1080/13548500802613043.
  17. Figueiras M.J., Marcelino D. and Cortes M.A. (2008). People’s views on the level of agreement of generic medicines for different illnesses. Pharmacy World & Science, 30(5): 590-594,
  18. Fishbien M. and Ajzen I. (1972). Attitudes and opinions. Annual Review of Psychology, 23: 487-544,
  19. Fornell C. and Larcker D.F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, 382-88,, 10.2307/3151335DOI: 10.2307/3151335
  20. Frank R.G. and Salkever D.S. (1992). Pricing patent loss and the market for pharmaceuticals. Southern Economic Journal, w3803: 165-179,, 10.2307/1060523.DOI: 10.2307/1060523.
  21. Frank R.G. and Salkever D.S. (1997). Generic Entry and the Pricing of Pharmaceuticals. Journal of Economics and Management Strategy, 6(1): 75-90,, 10.1162/105864097567039.DOI: 10.1162/105864097567039.
  22. Ganther J.M. and Kreling D.H. (1999). Consumer perceptions of risk and required cost savings for generic prescription drugs. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 40(3): 378-383,, 10.1016/S1086-5802(16)31086-5DOI: 10.1016/S1086-5802(16)31086-5
  23. Gentry J.W., Putrevu S., Shultz II C. and Commuri S. (2001). How now Ralph Lauren? The separation of brand and product in a counterfeit culture. Advances in Consumer Research, 28(1): 258-266.
  24. Grabowski H.G. and Vernon J.M. (1984). Brand loyalty, entry, and price competition in pharmaceuticals after the 1984 Drug Act. Journal of Law and Economics, 331-350.
  25. Guberman A. and Corman C. (2000). Generic substitution for brand name antiepileptic drugs: a survey. The Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, 27(1): 37-43.
  26. Haas J.S., Phillips K.A., Gerstenberger E.P. and Seger A.C. (2005). Potential savings from substituting generic drugs for brand-name drugs: medical expenditure panel survey, 1997-2000. Annals of internal medicine, 142(11): 891-897,, 10.7326/0003-4819-142-11-200506070-00006.DOI: 10.7326/0003-4819-142-11-200506070-00006.
  27. Hair J.F., Black W.C., Babin B.J., Anderson R.E., Tatham R.L. (2006). Multivariate Data Analysis (6th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  28. Hassali M.A., Kong D. and Stewart D. (2005). Generic medicines: perceptions of consumers in Melbourne, Australia. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 13(4): 257-264,
  29. Henderson J.D. and Esham R.H. (2001). Generic substitution: issues for problematic drugs. Southern medical journal, 94(1): 16-21,, 10.1097/00007611-200194010-00003.DOI: 10.1097/00007611-200194010-00003.
  30. Himmel W., Simmenroth-Nayda A., Niebling W., Ledig T., Jansen R., Kochen M.M., Gleiter C.H. and Hummers-Pradier E. (2005). What do primary care patients think about generic drugs?. International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics, 43(10): 472-479,
  31. Hooper D. Coughlan J. and Mullen M. (2008). Structural equation modelling: Guidelines for determining model fit. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6(1): 53-60.
  32. Hu L.T. and Bentler P.M. (1995). Evaluating model fit, In: Hoyle R. H., edited by, Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  33. Kapferer J.N. and Laurent J.K. (1992). La Sensibilite Aux Marques. Paris: Les Editions d’Organisation.
  34. Keil M., Tan B.C.Y., Wei K., Saarinen T., Tuunainen V. and Wassenaar, A. (2000). A cross-cultural study on education of commitment behavior in software projects. MIS Quarterly, 24: 299-325,, 10.2307/3250940.DOI: 10.2307/3250940.
  35. Kesselheim A.S., Misono A.S., Lee J.L., Stedman M.R., Brookhart M.A., Choudhry N.K. and Shrank W.H. (2008). Clinical equivalence of generic and brand-name drugs used in cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association, 300(21): 2514-2526,
  36. Kjoenniksen I., Lindbaek M. and Granas A.G. (2006). Patients’ attitudes towards and experiences of generic drug substitution in Norway. Pharmacy World and Science, 28(5): 284-289,
  37. Kline R. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modelling (2th ed.). New York, NY: Guillford.
  38. Lachance M.J., Beaudoin P. and Robitaille J. (2003). Adolescents’ brand sensitivity in apparel: influence of three socialization agents. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 27(1): 47-57,
  39. Lambert Z.V., Doering P.L. Goldstein E. and McCormick W.C. (1980). Predispositions toward generic drug acceptance. Journal of Consumer Research, 7(1): 14-23,, 10.1086/208788.DOI: 10.1086/208788.
  40. Laurent G. and Kapferer J.N. (1985). Measuring consumer involvement profiles. Journal of marketing research, 22(1): 41-53,, 10.2307/3151549.DOI: 10.2307/3151549.
  41. Lexchin J. (2004). The effect of generic competition on the price of brand-name drugs. Health Policy, 68(1): 47-54,
  42. Loehlin J.C. (1998). Latent variable models: An introduction to factor, path, and structural analysis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  43. Lugli G., Vergura D.T., Di Dio C. and Luceri B. (2012). Cognitive biases in private branding (a fMRI experiment of over-the-counter drugs). Mercati e Competitività, 2: 105-123.
  44. Meredith P. (2003). Bioequivalence and other unresolved issues in generic drug substitution. Clinical therapeutics, 25(11): 2875-2890,
  45. Mudambi S.M., Doyle P. and Wong V. (1997). An exploration of branding in industrial markets. Industrial Marketing Management, 26(5): 433-446,, 10.1016/S0019-8501(96)00151-4DOI: 10.1016/S0019-8501(96)00151-4
  46. Nelson M.R. and McLeod L.E. (2005). Adolescent brand consciousness and product placements: awareness, liking and perceived effects on self and others. International Journal of consumer studies, 29(6): 515-528,
  47. Nicolaou A.I. and McKnight D.H. (2006). Perceived information quality in data exchanges: Effects on risk, trust, and intention to use. Information Systems Research, 17(4): 332-441,
  48. Nunnally J.C. and Bernstein I.H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  49. O’Connor E.L. and White K.M. (2010). Willingness to trial functional foods and vitamin supplements: The role of attitudes, subjective norms, and dread of risks. Food Quality and Preference, 21(1): 75-81,
  50. OsMed (2015). L’uso dei farmaci in Italia -- http://www.agenziafarmaco.gov.it/sites/default/files/Rapporto_OsMed_2015_AIFA-acc.pdf.
  51. Podulka M., Krautkramer K., Amerson D., Phillips B. and Dolinsky D. (1989). Consumers’ attitudes toward generic drugs. Journal of Pharmaceutical Marketing & Management, 4(1): 93-104,
  52. Quintal V.A., Lee J.A. and Soutar G.N. (2010). Risk, uncertainty and the theory of planned behavior: A tourism example. Tourism Management, 31: 797-805,
  53. Regan T.L. (2008). Generic entry, price competition, and market segmentation in the prescription drug market. International Journal of Industrial Organization, 26(4): 930-948,
  54. Rizzo J.A. and Zeckhauser R. (2009). Generic script share and the price of brand-name drugs: the role of consumer choice. International journal of health care finance and economics, 9(3): 291-316,
  55. Satorra A. and Bentler P.M. (1994). Corrections to test statistics and standard errors in covariance structure analysis. In: Von Eye A. and Clogg C.C. (eds.). Latent Variables Analysis: Applications to Developmental Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Pubblications, Inc., 339-419.
  56. Schimiege S.J., Bryan A. and Klein W.M.P. (2009). Distinctions between worry and perceived risk in the context of the theory of planned behaviour. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39(1): 95-119,
  57. Shim S., Snyder L. and Gehrt K.G. (1995). Parents’ perception regarding children’s use of clothing evaluative criteria: an exploratory study from the consumer socialization process perspective. Advances in Consumer Research, 22: 628-632.
  58. Skaltsas L N. and Vasileiou K.Z. (2015). Patients’ perceptions of generic drugs in Greece. Health Policy, 119: 1406-1414,
  59. Sprotles G.B. and Kendall E.L. (1986). A Methodology for profiling consumers’ decision making styles. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 20(2): 267-279,
  60. Steenkamp J.B.E. and Van Trijp H.C. (1991). The use of LISREL in validating marketing constructs. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 8(4): 283-99,, 10.1016/0167-8116(91)90027-5.DOI: 10.1016/0167-8116(91)90027-5.
  61. Stewart J., Reddy S., Alzaher W., Vareed P., Yacoub N., Dhroptee B. and Rew A. (2010). An evaluation of consumers’ knowledge, perceptions and attitudes regarding generic medicines in Auckland. Pharmacy world & science, 32(4): 440-48,
  62. Stone R.N. and Grønhaug K. (1993). Perceived risk: further considerations for the marketing discipline. European Journal of marketing, 27(3): 39-50,, 10.1108/03090569310026637.DOI: 10.1108/03090569310026637.
  63. Takizawa O., Urushihara H., Tanaka S. and Kawakami K. (2015). Price difference as a predictor of the selection between brand name and generic statins in Japan. Health Policy, 119(5): 612-619,
  64. Tootelian D.H., Gaedeke R.M. and Schlacter J. (1988). Branded versus generic prescription drugs: perceptions of risk, efficacy, safety, and value. Journal of health care marketing, 8(3): 26-29.
  65. Valles J.A., Barreiro Valles J.A., Barreiro M., Cereza G., Ferro J.J., Martí J., Escriba J.M. ... and Generic Drug Study Group. (2003). A prospective multicenter study of the effect of patient education on acceptability of generic prescribing in general practice. Health Policy, 65(3): 269-275,, 10.1016/S0168-8510(03)00018-6DOI: 10.1016/S0168-8510(03)00018-6
  66. Wolfgang A.P. and Perri M. (1991). Older adults and generic drugs: an analysis of attitudes and intentions. Journal of Pharmaceutical Marketing & Management, 5(3): 97-106,

Cristina Zerbini, Donata Tania Vergura, Beatrice Luceri, in "MERCATI & COMPETITIVITÀ" 1/2017, pp. 159-176, DOI:10.3280/MC2017-001009

   

FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content