Clicca qui per scaricare

Perché abbiamo bisogno degli oggetti? Uno studio di psicoanalisi comparata (Why do we need objects? A study in comparative psychoanalysis)
Journal Title:  PSICOTERAPIA E SCIENZE UMANE
Author/s: Morris N. Eagle
Year: 2014 Issue: 4 language: Italian Pages: 20 Pg. 577-596 FullText PDF: 82 KB
DOI: 10.3280/PU2014-004002
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation, click here) and here


This paper poses the question of why we need objects and explicates and compares the responses of different psychoanalytic theories. In the course of pursuing this brief study of comparative psychoanalysis through the lens of responding to the question of why we need objects, some interesting and perhaps surprising answers emerge: Freudian and Kleinian theories, more than other theories, most explicitly identify object love as a developmental imperative and as a primary criterion of mental health. A good deal of discussion is devoted to the regulating functions of objects and object relations, and to the role of object love in psychic functioning. Finally, there is some brief discussion of the clinical implications of different responses to the question of why we need objects.

Keywords: Psychoanalytic theory, objects, object relations, object love, regulating functions of objects


  1. Fairbairn W.R.D. (1958). On the nature and aims of psycho-analytical treatment. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 39: 374-386.
  2. Atwood G.E. & Stolorow R. (1979). Faces in a Cloud: Intersubjectivity in Personality Theory. New York: Aronson (trad. it.: Volti nelle nuvole. Intersoggettività nella teoria della personalità. Roma: Borla, 2001).
  3. Bacal H.A. (1990). Does an object relations theory exist in self psychology? Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 10, 2: 197-220., DOI:10.1080/07351699009533807
  4. Bacal H.A. (1991). Notes on the relationship between object relations theory and self psychology. In: Goldberg A., editor, The Evolution of Self Psychology (Progress in Self Psychology, 7). Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press, 1991, pp. 36-44.
  5. Bacal H.A. & Newman K.M. (1990). Theories of Object Relations: Bridges to Self Psychology. New York: Columbia University Press (trad. it.: Teorie delle relazioni oggettuali e psicologia del Sé. Torino: Bollati Boringhieri, 1993).
  6. Bach S. (2006). Getting from Here to There: Analytic Love, Analytic Process. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press.
  7. Bakwin H. (1949). Emotional deprivation in infants. Journal of Pediatrics, 35, 4: 512-521., DOI:10.1016/S0022-3476(49)80071-0
  8. Beebe B., Lachmann F. & Jaffe J. (1997). Mother-infant interaction structuresand presymbolic self and object representations. Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 7, 2: 133-182., DOI:10.1080/10481889709539172.(trad.it.:Lestruttured’interazionemadre-bambinoelerappresentazionisimbolichedelSéedell’oggetto.Ricercapsicoanalitica,1999,X,1:9-63.ConinterventidiR.Kulka,J.K.Tabin,A.Harris,P.Fonagy)
  9. Beebe B. & Lachmann F.M. (2002). Infant Research and Adult Treatment. Co-Construction Interactions. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press (trad. it.: Infant Research e trattamento degli adulti. Un modello sistemico-diadico delle interazioni. Milano: Raffaello Cortina, 2003).
  10. Benjamin J. (1988). The Bonds of Love: Psychoanalysis, Feminism, & the Problem of Domination. New York: Pantheon (trad. it.: Legami d’amore: i rapporti di potere nelle relazioni amorose. Torino: Rosenberg & Sellier, 1991).
  11. Bowlby J. (1988). A Secure Base. London: Routledge (trad. it.: Una base sicura. Milano: Raffaello Cortina, 1989).
  12. Dennett D.C. (1987). The Intentional Stance. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1987 (trad. it.: L’atteggiamento intenzionale. Bologna: Il mulino, 1993)
  13. Eagle M.N. (1981). Interests as object relations. Psychoanalysis and Contemporary Thought, 4: 527-565.
  14. Eagle M.N. (1984). Recent Developments in Psychoanalysis. A Critical Evaluation. New York: McGraw-Hill (ristampa: Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1987) (trad. it.: La psicoanalisi contemporanea. Bari: Laterza, 1988). Edizione su Internet del cap. 11 (ediz. orig.cap. 12): “Carenze di sviluppo e conflitto dinamico”: www.priory.com/ital/documig8.htm. Eagle M.N. (2007). Implicazioni cliniche della teoria dell’attaccamento. Psicoterapia e Scienze Umane, XLI, 1: 7-38.
  15. Eagle M.N. (2011a). La natura sociale della mente. Psicoterapia e Scienze Umane, XLV, 1: 7-22., DOI:10.3280/PU2011-001001.Anchein:Eagle,2011b,pp.131-143
  16. Eagle M.N. (2011b). From Classical to Contemporary Psychoanalysis. A Critique and Integration. New York: Routledge (trad. it.: Da Freud alla psicoanalisi contemporanea. Critica e integrazione. Milano: Raffaello Cortina, 2012; pp. 131-143: Eagle, 2011a).
  17. Eagle M.N. (2013). Attachment and Psychoanalysis. Theory, Research, and Clinical Implications. New York: Guilford (trad. it.: Attaccamento e psicoanalisi. Teoria, ricerca e implicazioni cliniche. Milano: Raffaello Cortina, 2013).
  18. Eagle R.S. (2007). Help Him Make You Smile: The Development of Intersubjectivity in the Atypical Child. New York: Aronson.
  19. Fairbairn W.R.D. (1944). Endopsychic structure considered in terms of object-relationships. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 25: 70-92.
  20. Fairbairn W.R.D. (1952). Psychoanalytic Studies of the Personality. London: Tavistock (trad. it.: Studi psicoanalitici sulla personalità. Torino: Boringhieri, 1970, 1992).
  21. Fonagy P., Steele M., Steele H., Leigh T., Kennedy R. & Mattoon G. (1995). Attachment, the reflective self, and borderline states: The predictive validity of the adult attachment interview and pathological emotional development. In: Goldberg, Muir & Kerr, 1995, pp. 233-278.
  22. Fonagy P. & Bateman A. (2011). The widening scope of mentalizing. Psychology & Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, 48, 4: 98-110., DOI:10.1111/j.2044-8341.2010.02005.x
  23. Freud S. (1899 [1900]). L’interpretazione dei sogni. Opere, 3. Torino: Boringhieri, 1966.
  24. Freud S. (1906). Lettera a Carl Jung del 6 dicembre 1906 (8F). In: Lettere tra Freud e Jung (1906-1913). Torino: Boringhieri, 1974, pp. 11-13.
  25. Freud S. (1914). Introduzione al narcisismo. Opere, 7: 441-472. Torino: Boringhieri, 1975.
  26. Freud S. (1915). Metapsicologia. Pulsioni e loro destini. Opere, 8: 13-35. Torino: Boringhieri, 1976.
  27. Freud S. (1915-17 [1917]). Introduzione alla psicoanalisi. Lezione 28: La terapia analitica. Opere, 8: 597-611. Torino: Boringhieri, 1976.
  28. Freud S. (1920). Al di là del principio di piacere. Opere, 9: 189-249. Torino: Boringhieri, 1977.
  29. Freud S. (1922 [1923]). L’Io e l’Es. Opere, 9: 471-520. Torino: Boringhieri, 1977.
  30. Freud S. (1938 [1940]). Compendio di psicoanalisi. Opere, 11: 569-634. Torino: Boringhieri, 1979.
  31. Friedman L. (1978). Trends in psychoanalytic theory of treatment. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 4: 524-567. Anche in: The Anatomy of Psychotherapy. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press, 1988
  32. (trad. it.: Aspetti descrittivi della teoria: le tendenze presenti nella teoria psicoanalitica della cura. In: Anatomia della psicoterapia. Torino: Bollati Boringhieri, 1993, cap. 4, pp. 55-91).
  33. Friedman L. (2005). Is there a special psychoanalytic love? Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 53, 2: 349-375., DOI:10.1177/00030651050530020901
  34. Friedman L. (2008). Ritorno agli articoli di Freud sulla tecnica. Psicoterapia e Scienze Umane, XLII, 2: 151-162 (ediz. inglese: A renaissance for Freud’s Papers on Technique. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 2008, 77, 4: 1031-1044).
  35. Goldberg R.S., Muir R. & Kerr J. editors (1995). Attachment Theory: Social, Developmental and Clinical Perspectives. New York: Analytic Press Guntrip H. (1968). Schizoid Phenomena, Object-Relations, and the Self (Sutherland J.D., editor).
  36. London: Hogarth Press (trad. it.: Teoria psicoanalitica della relazione d’oggetto. Milano: Etas Libri, 1975).
  37. Harlow H.F. (1958). The nature of love. American Psychologist, 13: 673-685., DOI:10.1037/h0047884.Internet:http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Harlow/love.htm
  38. Heine H. (1844). Neue Gedichte. Schöpfungslieder, VII (trad. it.: Nuove poesie. Canti della Creazione. In: Poesie di Enrico Heine. Trad. di F. Amoroso. Napoli: Ricciardi, 1963).
  39. Hobson P. (2002). The Cradle of Thought: Exploring the Origins of Thinking. Oxford, UK: MacMillan.
  40. Hofer M.A. (1995). Hidden regulators: Implications for a new understanding of attachment, separation, and loss. In: Goldberg, Muir & Kerr, 1995, pp. 203-230.
  41. Hofer M.A. (2008). Early relationships as regulators of infant physiology and behavior. Acta Paediatrica, 83, 397: 9-18., DOI:10.1111/j.1651-2227.1994.tb13260.x
  42. Hofer M. (2014a). The emerging synthesis of development and evolution: A new biology for psychoanalysis. Neuropsychoanalysis, 16, 1: 3-22., DOI:10.1080/15294145.2014.901022
  43. Hofer M. (2014b). La nuova “biologia evoluzionistica dello sviluppo”: da Freud all’epigenetica. Psicoterapia e Scienze Umane, XLVIII, 3: 395-408., DOI:10.3280/PU2014-003002
  44. Hubel D.H. & Wiesel T.N. (1970). The period of susceptibility to the physiological effects of unilateral eye closure in kittens. Journal of Physiology, 206: 419-436.
  45. Jones E. (1952). Preface. In Fairbairn, 1952 (trad. it.: Prefazione, pp. 15-16).
  46. Karen R. (1994). Becoming Attached: First Relationships and How They Shape Our Capacity to Love. New York: Oxford University Press.
  47. Klein M. (1921-58). The Writings of Melanie Klein (4 volumes). London: Hogarth Press, 1975 (trad. it.: Scritti 1921-1958. Torino: Boringhieri, 1978).
  48. Klein M. (1935). A contribution to the psychogenesis of manic-depressive states. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 16: 145-174. In: Klein, 1921-58 (trad. it.: Contributo alla psicogenesi degli stati maniaco-depressivi. In: Klein, 1921-58 [1978], pp. 293-325).
  49. Klein M. (1957). Envy and Gratitude. London: Tavistock (trad. it.: Invidia e gratitudine. Firenze: Martinelli, 1969). Anche in: Klein, 1921-1958.
  50. Kohut H. (1971). The Analysis of the Self. New York: International Universities Press (trad. it.: Narcisismo e analisi del Sé. Torino: Boringhieri, 1976).
  51. Kohut H. (1977). The Restoration of the Self. New York: International Universities Press (trad. it.: La guarigione del Sé. Torino: Boringhieri, 1980).
  52. Kohut H. (1984). How Does Analysis Cure? Chicago: University of Chicago Press (trad. it.: La cura psicoanalitica. Torino: Boringhieri, 1986).
  53. Laing R.D. (1965). Practice and theory: The present situation. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 13: 58-67., DOI:10.1159/000285756
  54. Mitchell S.A. (1988). Relational Concepts in Psychoanalysis: An Integration. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press (trad. it.: Gli orientamenti relazionali in psicoanalisi. Per un modello integrato. Torino: Bollati Boringhieri, 1993).
  55. Mitchell S.A. (1998). The analyst’s knowledge and authority. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 67, 1: 1-31.
  56. Mitchell S.A. (2000). Response to Silverman. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 17, 1: 153-159., DOI:10.1037/0736-9735.17.1.153
  57. Rycroft C. (1968). A Critical Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. New York: Basic Books (trad. it.: Dizionario critico di psicoanalisi. Roma: Astrolabio, 1970).
  58. Segal H. (1964). Introduction to the Work of Melanie Klein. London: Heineman (trad. it.: Introduzione all’opera di Melanie Klein. Firenze: Martinelli, 1968). Schanberg S.M. & Kuhn C.M. (1980). Maternal deprivation: An animal model of psychosocial
  59. dwarfism. In: Usdin E., Sourkes T.L. & Youdin M.B.H., editors, Enzymes and Neurotransmitters in Mental Disease. New York: Wiley.
  60. Spelke E.S. (1983). Perception of partly occluded objects in infancy. Cognitive Psychology, 15, 4: 483-524.
  61. Spelke E.S., Breinlinger K., Macomber J. & Jacobson K. (1992). Origins of knowledge. Psychological Review, 99, 4: 605-632., DOI:10.1037/0033-295X.99.4.605
  62. Spitz R.A. (1945). Hospitalism: An inquiry into the genesis of psychiatric conditions in early childhood. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 1: 53-74.
  63. Spitz R.A. (1946). Hospitalism: A follow-up report on investigation described in Volume 1. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 2: 113-117.
  64. Spitz R.A. (1965). The First Year of Life. New York: International Universities Press (trad. it.: Il primo anno di vita: studio psicoanalitico sullo sviluppo delle relazioni oggettuali. Roma: Armando, 1973).
  65. Spitz R.A. & Wolf K.M. (1946). Anaclitic depression: An inquiry into the genesis of psychiatric conditions in early childhood, II. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 2: 313-342.
  66. Sroufe L.A. & Waters E. (1977). Attachment as an organizational construct. Child Development, 48, 4: 1184-1199., DOI:10.2307/1128475.Internetedition:http://www.psychology.sunysb.edu/attachment/online/org_construct.pdf
  67. Steingart I. (1995). A Thing Apart: Love & Reality in the Therapeutic Relationship. Northvale, NJ: Aronson.
  68. Stolorow R. & Atwood G.E. (1992). The myth of isolate mind. In: Stolorow R. & Atwood G.E, Contexts of Being: The Intersubjective Foundations of Psychological Life. Hillsdale, NJ:
  69. Analytic Press, 1992, ch. 1 (trad. it.: Il mito della mente isolata. In: I contesti dell’essere: le basi intersoggettive della vita psichica. Torino: Bollati Boringhieri, 1995, pp. 19-39).
  70. Stolorow R.D., Atwood G.E. & Orange D.M. (2002). Worlds of Experience. Interweaving Philosophical and Clinical Dimensions in Psychoanalysis. New York: Basic Books.
  71. Sullivan H.S. (1953). The Interpersonal Theory of Psychiatry. New York: Norton (trad. it.: La teoria interpersonale della psichiatria. Milano: Feltrinelli, 1962).
  72. Widlöcher D. (2000). Amour primaire et sexualité infantile: Un débat de toujours. In: Widlöcher D. et al., Sexualité infantile et attachement. Paris: PUF, 2000, pp. 1-56 (trad. it.: Amore primario e sessualità infantile: un dibattito perenne. In: Widlöcher D. et al., Sessualità infantile e attaccamento. Milano: FrancoAngeli, 2002, pp. 17-50; trad. inglese: Primary love and infantile sexuality: An eternal debate. In: Infantile sexuality and attachment. New York: Other Press, 2002, pp. 1-35).
  73. Wiesel T.N. (2005). Brain and Visual Perception: The Story of a 25-Year Collaboration. New York: Oxford University Press.
  74. Winnicott D.W. (1931-56 [1958]). Collected Papers. Through Pediatrics to Psychoanalysis. New York: Basic Books, 1958 (trad. it.: Dalla pediatria alla psicoanalisi. Scritti scelti. Firenze: Martinelli, 1975).
  75. Winnicott D.W. (1951). Transitional objects and transitional phenomena. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 1953, 34: 89-97. Anche in: Collected Papers. Through Pediatrics to Psychoanalysis. New York: Basic Books, 1958, pp. 229-242 (trad. it.: Oggetti transizionali e fenomeni transizionali. In: Dalla pediatria alla psicoanalisi. Scritti scelti. Firenze: Martinelli, 1975, cap. XVIII, pp. 275-290).
  76. Winnicott D.W. (1957-63 [1965]). The Maturational Process and the Facilitating Environment. New York: International Universities Press, 1965 (trad. it.: Sviluppo affettivo e ambiente. Roma: Armando, 1970).
  77. Winnicott D.W. (1958). The capacity to be alone. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 39: 416-420 (trad. it.: La capacità di essere solo. In: Winnicott, 1957-63 [1965], pp. 29-39).
  78. Wolf E. (1985). The search for confirmation: Technical aspects of mirroring. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 5, 2: 271-282., DOI:10.1080/07351698509533589
Morris N. Eagle, Perché abbiamo bisogno degli oggetti? Uno studio di psicoanalisi comparata in "PSICOTERAPIA E SCIENZE UMANE" 4/2014, pp. 577-596, DOI:10.3280/PU2014-004002

     


FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content
Buy here

Information about the Journal

RSS FEED

Versione Italiana

Download credit

Pubblicità