Imagery abilities in musicians

Author/s Anita Angelica
Publishing Year 2014 Issue 2014/1 Language Italian
Pages 15 P. 111-125 File size 193 KB
DOI 10.3280/RIP2014-001006
DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation click here

Below, you can see the article first page

If you want to buy this article in PDF format, you can do it, following the instructions to buy download credits

Article preview

FrancoAngeli is member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc (PILA), a not-for-profit association which run the CrossRef service enabling links to and from online scholarly content.

The neuropsychological investigation on the relationship between music and mental imagery is based on the assumption that such a link may be explained by the sharing of the same neural substrates, in a double direction: the music fosters the process of mental imagery which, in turn, affects the performance of music. After a review of the literature, the empirical study presented in this paper compares the abilities of imagination and the subjective perception of vividness in a sample of musicians and non-musicians. Two instruments, Mental Imagery Test (MIT) and Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire (VMIQ) were administered to the subjects, to evaluate the performance of tasks in imagery vividness of imagination and skills. As already reported by other studies, the two measures are not significantly correlated. Musicians does not differ from naive subjects with regard to the imaginative abilities, while there was a statistically significant difference in the perception of vivid images. This variable is correlated with years of musical training. According with the previous literature, the results showed that musical expertise has an impact on the ability of musicians to recall from memory and re-creating mental images, including details that make them vivid and closer to the real experience.

Keywords: Mental imagery, vividness, musical processes, musicians.

  1. Aleman, A., Nieuwenstein, M.R., Bocker, K.B., & de Haan, E.H. (2000). Music training and mental imagery ability. Neuropsychologia, 38(12), 1664-1668. DOI: 10.1016/S0028-3932(00)00079-8
  2. Baddeley, A.D., & Logie, R.H. (1992). Auditory imagery and working memory. In D. Reisberg (Ed.), Auditory Imagery (pp.179-197). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum.
  3. Baddeley, A.D., & Andrade, J. (2000). Working memory and the vividness of imagery. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 129(1), 126-145. DOI: 10.1037/0096-3445.129.1.126
  4. Bailes, F. (2007). The prevalence and nature of imagined music in the everyday lives of musical students. Psychology of Music, 35(4), 555-570. DOI: 10.1177/0305735607077834
  5. Benedan, S., & Antonietti, A. (1997). Pensare le immagini. Trento: Erickson.
  6. Calmels, C., Holmes, P., Lopez, E., & Naman, V. (2006). Chronometric comparison of actual and imaged complex movement patterns. Journal of Motor Behavior, 38, 339-348. DOI: 10.3200/JMBR.38.5.339-348
  7. Campos, A., Perez, M.J., & Gomez-Juncal, R. (2004). Gender and age differences in measured and self-perceived imaging capacity. Personality and Individual Differences, 37(7), 1383-1389. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2004.01.008
  8. Cicerone, P.E. (2003). Crescere con la musica. Mente e Cervello, 1, 82-85.
  9. Hodges, D. (1996). Neuromusical Research: A review of the literature. In D. Hodges (ed.), Handbook of music psychology (pp. 203-290). San Antonio: IMR Press.
  10. Cornoldi, C., De Beni, R., Giusberti, F., Marucci, F., Massironi, M., & Mazzoni, G. (1991). The study of vividness of images. In R.H. Logie & M. Denis (Eds.), Mental images in human cognition (pp. 305-312). New York: North-Holland.
  11. Crowder, R.G. (1989). Imagery for musical timbre. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 15(3), 472-478. DOI: 10.1037/0096-1523.15.3.472
  12. Cui, X., Jeter, C.B., Yang, D., Montague, P.R., & Eagleman, D.M. (2007). Vividness of mental imagery: Individual variability can be measured objectively. Vision Research, 47(4), 474-478. DOI: 10.1016/j.visres.2006.11.013
  13. Di Nuovo, S., Castellano, S., & Guarnera, M. (2014). Mental Imagery Test. Firenze: Hogrefe.
  14. Gaser, C., & Schlaug, G. (2001). Brain structures differ between musicians and non-musicians. The journal of neuroscience, 13(6), 1168-1168. DOI: 10.1016/S1053-8119(01)92488-7
  15. Gibbs, R.W., & Berg, E.A. (2002). Mental imagery and embodied activity. Journal of Mental Imagery, 26, 1-30.
  16. Godoy, R.I., & Jorgensen, H. (2001). Musical Imagery. Lisse, The Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.
  17. Goldenberg, G., Podreka, I., Steiner, M., Franzen, P., & Deecke, L. (1991). Contributions of occipital and temporal brain regions to visual and acoustic imagery - A Spect study. Neuropsychologia, 29(7), 695-702. DOI: 10.1016/0028-3932(91)90103-F
  18. Guarnera, M., Castellano, S., & Di Nuovo, S. (2014). Il mental imagery nell’anziano: quanto influisce sul funzionamento cognitivo generale? Ricerche di Psicologia, present issue.
  19. Guillot, A., & Collet, C. (2005). Duration of mentally simulated movements: A review. Journal of Motor Behavior, 37(1), 10-19. DOI: 10.3200/JMBR.37.1.10-20
  20. Halpern, A.R. (1989). Memory for the absolute pitch of familiar songs. Memory & Cognition, 17(5), 572-581. DOI: 10.3758/BF03197080
  21. Halpern, A.R. (1992). Musical aspects of auditory imagery. In D. Reisberg (Ed.), Auditory Imagery (pp. 1-27). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  22. Halpern, A.R., & Zatorre, R.J. (1999). When that tune runs through your head: A PET investigation of auditory imagery for familiar melodies. Cerebral Cortex, 9(7), 697-704. DOI: 10.1093/cercor/9.7.697
  23. Halpern, A.R. (2001). Cerebral substrates of musical imagery. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 930(1), 179-192. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2001.tb05733.x
  24. Halpern, A.R., Zatorre, R.J., Bouffard, M., & Johnson, J.A. (2004). Behavioral and neural correlates of perceived and imagined musical timbre. Neuropsychologia, 42(9), 1281-1292. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2003.12.017
  25. Herholz, S.C., Lappe C., Knief, A., & Pantev, C. (2008). Neural basis of music imagery and the effect of musical expertise. European Journal of Neuroscience, 28(11), 2352-2360. DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2008.06515.x
  26. Herholz, S.C., Halpern, A.R., & Zatorre, R.J. (2012). Neuronal correlates of perception, imagery, and memory for familiar tunes. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 24(6), 1382-1397. DOI: 10.1162/jocn_a_00216
  27. Hishitani, S. (1993). Imagery differences: What controls the vividness of imagery. Advances in Japanese Cognitive Science, 6, 81-117.
  28. Hishitani, S., Miyazaki, T., & Motoyama, H. (2011). Some mechanisms responsible for the vividness of mental imagery: Suppressor, closer, and other functions. Journal of Mental Imagery, 35, 5-32.
  29. Hishitani, S., & Nishihara, S. (2007). A measurement of the ability to assess imagery vividness based on a model of working memory and signal detection theory. The Japanese Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 4(2), 103-115. DOI: 10.5265/jcogpsy.4.103
  30. Holper, L., Scholkmann, F., Shalom, D., & Wolf, M. (2012). Extension of mental preparation positively affects motor imagery as compared to motor execution: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study. Cortex, 48(5), 593-603. DOI: 10.1016/j.cortex.2011.02.001
  31. Hubbard, T.L. (2010). Auditory imagery: Empirical findings. Psychological Bulletin, 136(2), 302-329. DOI: 10.1037/a0018436
  32. Ishai, A., Ungerleider, L.G., & Haxby, G.V. (2000). Distributed neural systems for the generation of visual images. Neuron, 28(3), 979-990. DOI: 10.1016/S0896-6273(00)00168-9
  33. Isaac, A.R., Marks, D.F., & Russell, D.G. (1986). An instrument for assessing imagery of movement: the vividness of movement imagery questionnaire (VMIQ). Journal of Mental Imagery, 10, 23-30.
  34. Janata, P. (2001). Brain electrical activity evoked by mental formation of auditory expectations and images. Brain Topography, 13, 169-193. DOI: 10.1023/A:1007803102254
  35. Janata, P., & Paroo, K. (2006). Acuity of auditory images in pitch and time. Perception and Psychophysics, 68(5), 829-844. DOI: 10.3758/BF03193705
  36. Jeannerod, M. (1994). The representing brain. Neural correlates of motor intention and imagery. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 17(2), 187-245. DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X00034026
  37. Jeannerod, M. (2001). Neural simulation of action: A unifying mechanism for motor cognition. NeuroImage, 14(1), 103-109. DOI: 10.1006/nimg.2001.0832
  38. Keller, P.E., & Koch, I. (2006). Exogenous and endogenous response priming with auditory stimuli. Advance in Cognitive Psychology, 2(4), 269-276. DOI: 10.2478/v10053-008-0061-9
  39. Keller, P.E., & Koch, I. (2008). Action planning in sequential skills: relations to music performance. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61(2), 275-291. DOI: 10.1080/17470210601160864
  40. Keller, P.E. (2012). Mental imagery in music performance: underlying mechanisms and potential benefits. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1252(1), 206-213. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06439.x
  41. Koelsch, S. (2012). Brain and Music. New York: Wiley.
  42. Kosslyn, S.M. (1980). Image and Mind. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  43. Kosslyn, S.M., Ganis, G., & Thompson, W.L. (2001). Neural foundation of imagery. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2, 635-642. DOI: 10.1038/35090055
  44. Kosslyn, S.M. (2005). Mental images and the brain. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 22(3-4), 333-347. DOI: 10.1080/02643290442000130
  45. Kosslyn, S.M., Thompson, W.L., & Ganis, G. (2006). The case for mental imagery. New York: Oxford University Press.
  46. Kraemer, D.J., Macrae, C.N., Green, A.E., & Kelley, W.M. (2005). Musical imagery: Sound of silence activates auditory cortex. Nature, 434(7030), 158-158. DOI: 10.1038/434158a
  47. Leaver, A.M., Van Lare, J., Zielinski, B., Halpern, A.R., & Rauschecker, J.P. (2009). Brain activation during anticipation of sound sequences. Journal of Neuroscience, 29(8), 2477-2485. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4921-08.2009
  48. Lequerica, A., Rapport, L., Axelrod, B.N., Telmet, K., & Whitman, R.D. (2002). Subjective and objective assessment methods of mental imagery control: Construct validation of self-report measures. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 24(8), 1103-1116. DOI: 10.1076/jcen.24.8.1103.8370
  49. Lotze, M., Scheler, G., Tan, H.R.M., Braun, C., & Birbaumer, N. (2003). The musician's brain: functional imaging of amateurs and professionals during performance and imagery. Neuroimage, 20(3), 1817-1829. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2003.07.018
  50. Louis, M., Guillot, A., Maton, S., Doyon, C., & Collet, C. (2008). Effect of imagined movement speed on subsequent motor performance. Journal of Motor Behavior, 40(2), 117-132. DOI: 10.3200/JMBR.40.2.117-132
  51. McKelvie, S.J. (1995). The VVIQ and beyond: vividness and its measurement. Journal of Mental Imagery, 19, 197-252.
  52. Meister, I.G., Krings, T., Foltys, H., Boroojerdi, B., Muller, M., Topper, R., & Thron, A. (2004). Playing piano in the mind- an fMRI study on music imagery and performance in pianists. Cognitive Brain Research, 19(3), 219-228. DOI: 10.1016/j.cogbrainres.2003.12.005
  53. Moran, A. (1993). Conceptual and methodological issues in the measurement of mental imagery skills in athletes. Journal of Sport Behavior, 16, 156-170.
  54. Morris, T., Spittle, M., & Watt, A.P. (2005). Imagery in sport. Minnesota: Human Kinetics.
  55. Munte, T.F., Altenmuller E., & Jancke, L. (2002). The musician’s brain as a model of neuroplasticity. Nature Review Neuroscience, 3, 473-478. DOI: 10.1038/nrn843
  56. Paivio, A. (1971). Imagery and verbal processes. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
  57. Pascual-Leone, A. (2003). The brain that makes music and is changed by it. In I. Peretz & R. Zatorre (Eds), The cognitive neuroscience of Music (pp. 396-409). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  58. Pinker, S. (1997). How the mind works. New York: Norton.
  59. Richardson, A. (1994). Individual differences in imaging: Their measurement, origins and consequences. Amityville, NY: Baywood.
  60. Sacks, O. (2012). Musicofilia. Milano: Adelphi.
  61. Schurmann, M., Raij, T., Fujiki, N., & Hari, R. (2002). Mind’s ear in a musician: Where and when in the brain. Neuroimage, 16, 434-440. DOI: 10.1006/nimg.2002.1098
  62. Storr, A. (1993). Music and the mind. New York: Ballantine Books.
  63. Szameitat, A.J., Shen, S., & Sterr, A. (2007). Motor imagery of complex everyday movements. An fMRI study. Neuroimage, 34(2), 702-713. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2006.09.033
  64. Yoo, S., Lee, C.U., & Choi, B.G. (2001). Human brain mapping of auditory imagery: Event-related functional MRI study. NeuroReport, 12(14), 3045-3049. DOI: 10.1097/00001756-200110080-00013
  65. Zatorre, R.J., Halpern, A.R., Perry, D.W., Meyer, E., & Evans, A.C. (1996). Hearing in the mind’s ear: A PET investigation of musical imagery and perception. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 8, 29-46. DOI: 10.1162/jocn.1996.8.1.29
  66. Zatorre, R.J., & Halpern, A.R. (2005). Mental concerts: Musical imagery and auditory cortex. Neuron, 47(1), 9-12. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2005.06.013.Zatorre,R.J.,Halpern,A.R.,&Bouffard,M.(2010).Mentalreversalofimagine
  67. melodies: A role for the posterior parietal cortex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22(4), 775-789. DOI: 10.1162/jocn.2009.21239

Anita Angelica, Le capacità immaginative nei musicisti in "RICERCHE DI PSICOLOGIA " 1/2014, pp 111-125, DOI: 10.3280/RIP2014-001006