Nowadays the environmental risk is a very topic subject at the light of evidences of possible or certain harms for the human health. The environmental risk is strictly associated to the food risk and to environmental damage that has determined the production of foods contaminated by polluted substances. Also the so-called "novel food", resulting of the technological innovation, the new economy perspectives and, above all, the genetic engineer, may be a possible risk for the environment and human health. The alimentary safety concept, empathised by the European Union, surpasses all the other necessities and it has to be the primary requirement demanded by the customer. Consequentially, the quality concept, as global quality of the product and environmental quality of process and product, assumes a very wide importance. In the environmental quality definition, it has to be considered and evaluated the possible risks linked to environmental contamination constituted by heavy metals, artificial fertilisers, hormonal residues, as well as microbiological contamination caused by the absence of the hygienic procedures during the whole producing process. The scientific uncertainly determines the precaution need when the risk is foreseen. The precaution principle requests a preliminary estimation of the risks and benefits associated a new technology, whose effects are not sufficiently known.