Superare l’implementation gap: il lavoro flessibile in 20 aziende statunitensi

Author/s Frederick Van Deusen
Publishing Year 2013 Issue 2013/2 Language Italian
Pages 31 P. 11-41 File size 375 KB
DOI 10.3280/SP2013-002002
DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation click here

Below, you can see the article first page

If you want to buy this article in PDF format, you can do it, following the instructions to buy download credits

Article preview

FrancoAngeli is member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc (PILA), a not-for-profit association which run the CrossRef service enabling links to and from online scholarly content.

Since 1990, the Boston College Center for Work & Family has been working with organizational leaders around a shared interest in creating effective workplaces where employees feel successful in their work and their nonwork lives. Over that time, numerous programs, policies, and initiatives for flexible work arrangements (FWAs) have been rolled out with much fanfare and optimism. Indeed, many benefits accrued for organizations at the forefront of this movement, such as improved recruiting and retention, and employee engagement and satisfaction. For a while, it looked as if the utilization rate of these policies was increasing year by year. Recently, however, the use of these policies has stabilized or even declined. From academic and corporate research, we have learned that these flexible work arrangement programs are available but not widely used, some would say, not usable. There is much unevenness in the extent to which these flexibility programs are meeting the needs of employees or businesses. It has been suggested that there are missing links in the process between setting up a program for working flexibly and making it work, which Lewis and Haas have labeled the "implementation gap". This report represents what we hope will be the first of many efforts to fill that gap. Rather than focusing on why these programs are not working to the desired extent, our focus is on what makes some of these programs very successful. Here we present in detail an array of exemplary programs from leading companies along with insights, recommendations, and strategies believed to be responsible for their success.

Keywords: Flexible Work Arrangement; Implementation Gap; Work-Family Conflict, Flexibiliy, Business Case

  1. Almer, E.D. e Kaplan, S.E. 2002 The Effects of Flexible Work Arrangements on Stressors, Burnout, and Behavior Job Outcomes in Public Accounting, in «Behavioral Research in Accounting», 14, pp. 1-34.
  2. Appelbaum, E. e Golden, L. 2003 The Standard Workday or the Highway: Employers Stall in Delivery of More Flexible Arrangements That Can Help Relieve Workers’ Time Squeeze, Washington, D.C., The Center for Designing Work Wisely.
  3. Attridge, M.
  4. 2005 The Business Case for the Integration of Employee Assistance, Work-Life and Wellness Services: A Literature Review, in «Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health», 20, pp. 31-55.
  5. Bailyn, L., Fletcher, J.K. e & Kolb, D.
  6. 1997 Unexpected Connections: Considering Employees’ Personal Lives Can Revitalize Your Business, in «Sloan Management Review», 38, pp. 11-19.
  7. Blair-Loy, M. e Wharton, A.S. 2004 Organizational Commitment and Constraints on Work-Family Policy Use: Corporate Flexibility Policies in a Global Firm, in «Sociological Perspectives» 47, pp. 243-267.
  8. Bloom, N., Kretschmer, T. e Van Reenen, J. 2006 Work-Life Balance, Management Practices and Productivity, in «CEP Discussion Papers 16», LSE, Centre for Economic Performance.
  9. Bond, J.T., Galinsky, E., Kim, S.S. e Brownfield, E. 2005 National Study of Employers: Highlights of Findings, New York, Families and Work Institute.
  10. Bond, J.T., Thompson, C., Galinsky, E. e Prottas, D. 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce, New York, Families and Work Institute.
  11. Boston College Center for Work & Family 2002 Bringing Work Home: The Advantages and Challenges of Telecommuting, Report by E. Hamilton, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA.
  12. BPW Foundation 2004 101 Facts on the Status of Working Women, Business and Professional Women/USA and the BPW Foundation, Washington, D.C.
  13. Bravo, E. 2005 Quality Part-Time Options in Wisconsin. A Report to the 9 to 5 National Association of Working Women, Retrieved May 15, 2007, in
  14. Bureau of Labor Statistics 2002 Work at Home in 2001, in
  15. Burud, S. e Tumulo, M. 2004 Leveraging the New Human Capital: Adaptive Strategies, Results Achieved and Stories of Transformation, New York, Davies-Black.
  16. Christensen, K. 2006 Leadership in Action: A Work and Family Agenda for the Future, in M. Pitt-Catsouphes, E.E. Kossek e S. Sweet (eds), The Work and Family Handbook. Mahwah, New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  17. Cohen, J.R. e Single, L.E. 2001 An Examination of the Perceived Impact of Flexible Work Arrangements on Professional Opportunities in Public Accounting, in «Journal of Business Ethics», August, 2001.
  18. Comfort, D., Johnson, K. e Wallace, D. 2003 The Evolving Workplace Series. Part-Time Work and Family-Friendly Practices in Canadian Workplaces, in
  19. Compensation & Benefits for Law Offices 2006 Job-Sharing Advice for Law Offices, Institute of Management & Administration, 6(10), pp. 2-3.
  20. Corporate Voices for Working Families 2005 Business Impacts of Flexibility: An Imperative for Expansion, WFD Consulting Research. A Corporate Voices for Working Families Report, November, 2005.
  21. Corwin, V., Frost, P.J. e Lawrence, T.B. 2001 Five Strategies of Successful Part-Time Work, in «Harvard Business Review», 79 (7), pp. 121-128.
  22. CultureRx
  23. 2007 ROWE: Results-Only Work Meditation, in
  24. 2003 Flexible Working: 50 Successful Stories, London, HMSO.
  25. Emory 2007 Alternative Work Arrangements, in
  26. Employment Policy Foundation 2003 Work-Life Balance: Key Factor for Part-Time Workers During Prime Working Years, The Balancing Act Newsletter, Washington, D.C.
  27. Employment Policy Foundation 2004 Telework: Part of the Work-Life Balance Equation, The Balancing Act Newsletter, Washington, D.C.
  28. Fitzpatrick, B. 2007 Sloan Work and Family Research Network The Network News, in
  29. Galinsky, E., Bond, J. e Friedman, D. 1996 The Role of Employers in Addressing the Needs of Employed Parents, in «Journal of Social Issues», 52, pp. 111-136.
  30. Galinsky, E., Salmond, K., Bond, J.T., Kropf, M.B., Moore, M. e Harrington, B. 2003 Leaders in a Global Economy: A Study of Executive Women and Men, A Report produced by the Families & Work Institute, Catalyst Inc. and the Boston College Center for Work & Family.
  31. Gannett, ? 2005 Gannett Announces Results of Pilot Program for the BOLD Initiative, in
  32. Ganslen, B., e American Airlines 2007 The BOLD Initiative: The Workplace Flexibility Initiative, Personal correspondence with Beth Ganslen.
  33. Glass, J.
  34. 2004 Blessing or Curse? Work-Family Policies and Mother’s Wage Growth Over Time, in «Work and Occupations», 31, pp. 367-3 94.
  35. Golden, L. 2001 Flexible Work Schedules: What are Workers Trading Off to Get Them?, in «Monthly Labor Review», 124 (3), pp. 50-67.
  36. 2003 The Benefits to Organizations of Work Schedule Flexibility, in M. Koslowsky, A. Sagie e S. Stashevsky (eds.) Misbehavior and Dysfunctional Attitudes in Organizations, New York, Palgrave/Macmillan Press, pp. 122-37.
  37. Grover, S.S. e Crooker, K.J. 1995 Who Appreciates Family-Responsive Human Resource Policies: The Impact of Family-Friendly Policies on the Organizational Attachment of Parents and Non-Parents, in «Personnel Psychology», 48, pp. 271-288.
  38. Hall, D.T. e Mirvis, P.H. 1996 The New Protean Career: Psychological Success and the Path With a Heart, in D.T. Hall e Associates (eds.), The Career is Dead—Long Live the Career: A Relational Approach to Careers, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass, pp.15-45.
  39. Harrington, B. 2007 The Work-Life Evolution Study, The Boston College Center for Work & Family, Chestnut Hill, MA.
  40. Harrington, B. e Hall, D.T. 2007 Career Management & Work-Life Integration: Using Self-Assessment to Navigate Contemporary Careers, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.
  41. Hill, J., Vjollca, M. e Ferris, M. 2004 New-Concept Part-Time Employment as a Work-Family Adaptive Strategy for Women Professionals With Small Children, in «Family Relations», 53(3), pp. 282-292.
  42. Hohl, K.L. 1996 The Effects of Flexible Work Arrangements, in «Nonprofit Management and Leadership», 7 (1), pp. 69-86.
  43. HR Focus 2006 Have You Considered Job Sharing As a Retention Tool?, in «Institute of Management & Administration», 83(9), pp. 10-11.
  44. The Hudson Report 2006 Jobsharing: A Fresh Look at Flexible Working, The Hudson Institute, Brisbone, Qld, Australia.
  45. Human Resources and Social Development Canada (HRDC) 2007 Workplace Flexibility (Workplace Programs, Policies and Practices), in
  46. Jacobs, J.A. e Gerson, K. 2004 The Time Divide: Work, Family, and Gender Inequality, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press.
  47. James, J.B., Swanberg, J.E. e McKechnie, S.P. 2007 Responsive Workplaces For Older Workers: Job Quality, Flexibility and Employee Engagement, Issue Brief #11, Boston College Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility, Chestnut Hill, MA.
  48. Jones, C. 2005 Teleworking: The Quiet Revolution, Stamford, Connecticut, Gartner, Inc.
  49. Jossi, F. 2007 Clocking Out: Best Buy’s Novel Come-And-Go-As-You-Please Work Style is Pleasing Employees and Catching on Elsewhere, in «R Magazine», June 2007, pp. 47-50.
  50. Judge, T. e Colquitt, J. 2004 Organizational Justice and Stress: The Mediating Role of Work-Family Conflict, in «Journal of Applied Psychology», 89, pp. 395-404.
  51. Judiesch, M.K. e Lyness, K.S. 1999 Left Behind? The Impact of Leaves of Absence on Managers’ Career Success, in «Academy of Management Journal», 42 (6), pp. 641-651.
  52. Katepoo, P. 2007 Compressed Workweek: Pros & Cons as a Flexible Work Arrangement, in
  53. Kopelman, R. 1986 Alternative Work Schedules and Productivity: A Review of the Evidence, in «National productivity review», 5, pp. 150-165.
  54. Kossek, E. 2003 Telecommuting, A Sloan Work and Family Research Network Encyclopedia Entry, Chestnut Hill, MA, Sloan Work and Family Research Network.
  55. Kossek, E. e Ozeki, C. 1999 Bridging The Work-Family Policy and Productivity Gap: A Literature Review Community, in «Work & Family», 2(1), pp. 7-30.
  56. Lambert, S.J. e Kossek, E.E. 2005 Future Frontiers: Enduring Challenges and Established Assumptions in the Work-life Field, in E.E. Kossek e S.J. Lambert (eds.), Work and Life Integration: Organizational, Cultural, and Individual Perspectives, Mahwah, New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 513-532.
  57. Lee, M.D. e Kossek, E. 2004 Crafting Lives That Work: A SixYear Retrospective on Reduced-Load Work in The Careers and Lives of Professionals and Managers, School of Labor and Industrial Relations, Michigan University.
  58. Leonard, B. 2000 Recipes For Part-Time Benefits, in «HR Magazine», 45 (4), pp. 56-59.
  59. Lewis, S. e Haas, L. 2005 Work-Life Integration and Social Policy: A Social Justice Theory and Gender Equity Approach to Work and Family, in E.E. Kossek e S.J. Lambert (eds.), Work and Life Integration: Organizational, Cultural, and Individual Perspectives, Mahwah, New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 349-374.
  60. Litchfield, L. e Pitt-Catsouphes, M. 2000 The Importance of Time and Flexibility, Chestnut Hill, MA, Boston College Center for Work & Family.
  61. MacDermid, S. 2005 (Re)Considering Conflict Between Work and Family, in E.E. Kossek e S.J. Lambert (eds.), Work and Life Integration, Mahwah, New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 19-40.
  62. Managing Benefits Plans 2006 Job Sharing: One Way to Hold on to Valued Employees, in «Institute of Management & Administration», 6(1), pp. 1-15.
  63. Meadows, S. e Rankin, P. 1995 Some Personal Reflections on Job Sharing, in «Health Manpower Management», 21(6), pp. 35-37.
  64. Miller, J. e Miller, M. 2005 Get a Life!, in «Fortune Magazine», pp. 109-124.
  65. Moen, P. (a cura di) 2003 It’s About Time: Couples and Careers, Ithaca, NY, ILR Press.
  66. Moen, P. e Yu. 1999 Having it All: Overall Work/Life Success in Two Earner Families, in T. Parcel (ed.), Research in the Sociology of Work, 7, pp. 129-139, Greenwich, CT, JAI Press.
  67. Nord, W.R., Fox, S., Phoenix, A. e Viano, K. 2002 Real-World Reactions to Work-Life Balance Programs: Lessons for Effective Implementation, in «Organizational Dynamics», 30, pp. 223-238.
  68. Pandya, S.M., Wolkwitz, K. e Feinberg, L.F. 2006 Support for Working Family Caregivers: Paid Leave Policies in California and Beyond, San Francisco, CA, National Center on Caregiving, The Family Caregiving Alliance.
  69. Parker, C.P., Baltes, B.B., Young, S.A., Huff, J.W., Altmann, R.A., LaCost, H.A. e Roberts, J.
  70. 1999 Relationships Between Psychological Climate Perceptions and Work Outcomes: A Meta-Analytic Review, in «Journal of Organizational Behavior», 24 (4), pp. 389-416.
  71. Pierce, J. e Dunham, R. 1992 The 12-Hour Work Day: A 48-Hour, Eight Day Week, in «Academy of Management Journal», 35 (5), pp. 1086-1098.
  72. Perry-Jenkins, M., Repetti, R.L. e Crouter, A.C. 2000 Work and Family in the 1990s, in «Journal of Marriage and Family», 62, pp.981-998.
  73. Pew Research Center 2007 From 1997 to 2007: Fewer Mothers Prefer Full-time Work, in «A Social and Demographic Trends Report» published July, 2007
  74. Pitt-Catsouphes, M., Smyer, M.A., Matz-Costa, C. e Kane, K. 2007 The National Study Report Phase II of the National Study of Business Strategy and Workforce Development, The Center on Aging and Work Workplace Flexibility at Boston College.
  75. Potter, E. 2003 Telecommuting: The Future of Work, Corporate Culture, and American Society, in «Journal of Labor Research».
  76. Pruchno, R., Litchfield, L. e Fried, M. 2000 Measuring the Impact of Workplace Flexibility: Findings from the National Work/Life Measurement Project, Chestnut Hill, MA, Boston College Center for Work & Family.
  77. Radcliffe Policy Center with Harris Interactive 2000 Life’s Work: Generational Attitudes Toward Work and Integration, Cambridge, MA, Radcliffe Public Policy Center.
  78. Richman, A., Noble, K. e Johnson, A. 2001-2002 When the Workplace is Many Places, Watertown, MA, WFD Consulting.
  79. Rifkin, J. 1995 The End of Work: The Decline of the Global Labor Market Force and the Dawn of the Post-Market Era, New York, Tarcher/Putnam.
  80. Roundtree, L. e Kerrigan, K. 2007 Flex-Options Guide, A Report prepared by the U.S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau.
  81. Rudd, E. 2004 Family Leave: A Policy Concept Made in America, A Sloan Work and Family Research Network Encyclopedia Entry, Chestnut Hill, MA, Sloan Work and Family Research Network.
  82. Seitel, S. 2006 Eleven Essential Steps to Designing a Successful Work-Life Program, Minnetonka, MN, Work Family Connections, retrieved September 28, 2007,
  83. Sennett, R. 1998 The Corrosion of Character: The Personal Consequences of Work in the New Capitalism, New York, Norton.
  84. Simms, J. 2006 Who Job Shares Wins?, in «Director», 59(6), pp. 48-52.
  85. Staines, G. e Pleck, J. 1986 Work Schedule Flexibility and Family Life, in «Journal of Occupational Behaviour», 7, pp. 147-153.
  86. Sutton, K.L. e Noe, R.A. 2005 Family-Friendly Programs and Work-Life Integration: More Myth Than Magic?, in E.E. Kossek e S.J. Lambert (eds.), Work and Life Integration, Mahwah, New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 151-170.
  87. Swanberg, J.E., James, J.B., Werner, M., e McKechnie, S. in press Workplace Flexibility for Hourly Lower Wage Employees: A Strategic Business Practice, in «The Psychologist Management Journal».
  88. Swanberg, J. E., Pitt-Catsouphes, M. e Drescher-Burke, K. 2005 A Question of Justice: Disparities in Employees’ Access to Flexible Schedule Arrangements, in «Journal of Family Issues», 26, pp. 866-895.
  89. Tilly, C. 1997 Part-Time Work: a Mobilizing Issue, in «New Politics», 6(4), pp. 19-26, in
  90. U.S. Census Bureau 2003 Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2003, in «The National Data Book», Section 12, Labor Force, employment, and earnings, Table No. 605, Persons Doing Job- Related Work at Home: 2001, Washington, D.C., U.S. Census Bureau.
  91. Van Dyne, L., Kossek, E. e Lobel, S. 2007 Less Need to Be There: Cross-Level Effects of Work Practices That Support Work-Life Flexibility and Enhance Group Processes and Group-Level OCB, Sage Publications, Los Angeles, CA on behalf of the Tavistock Institute.
  92. Waldfogel, J. 2001 Family and Medical Leave: Evidence From the 2000 Surveys, in «Monthly Labor Review», 124(9), pp. 17-23.
  93. Wharton, A.S. e Blair-Loy, M. 2002 The “Overtime Culture” in a Global Corporation, in «Work and Occupations», 29(1), pp. 32-63.

Frederick Van Deusen, Superare l’implementation gap: il lavoro flessibile in 20 aziende statunitensi in "SOCIOLOGIA E POLITICHE SOCIALI" 2/2013, pp 11-41, DOI: 10.3280/SP2013-002002