A (Social Media) picture is worth a thousand words

Author/s Francesca Negri
Publishing Year 2018 Issue 2018/4 Language English
Pages 18 P. 47-64 File size 508 KB
DOI 10.3280/MC2018-004004
DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation click here

Below, you can see the article first page

If you want to buy this article in PDF format, you can do it, following the instructions to buy download credits

Article preview

FrancoAngeli is member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc (PILA), a not-for-profit association which run the CrossRef service enabling links to and from online scholarly content.

A large amount of UGCs shared by people on the Internet and on Social Media consists of photos, images and pictures. New forms of qualitative data continually emerge (Creswell, 2009), many of these today come from the Social Media context. The paper tries to transfer Content Analysis method from text to visual content (images and pictures), focussing on UGCs one. This paper would contribute to the existing literature modelling a specific new protocol to analyse UGC photos, images and pictures deriving from Social Media. In this process, the automated vs. human coding is also considered, with a review of innovative collecting methods.

Keywords: Social Media, UGC, visual data, image, picture, coding. First submission: 19/01/2018, accepted: 27/07/2018

  1. Ahlqvist T., Bäck A., Heinonen S., and Halonen M. (2010). Road-mapping the Societal Transformation Potential of Social Media. Foresight, 1(5): 3-26. DOI: 10.1108/14636681011075687
  2. Alexander V.D. (2008). Analysing visual materials. In: Gilbert N. Researching Social Life (3rd Edition). London: Sage, pp. 343-360. Belk R.W. (2006). Handbook of Qualitative Research Methods in Marketing. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar P.L.
  3. Belk R. (2013). Commentary: visual and projective methods in Asian research. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 16(1): 94-107. DOI: 10.1108/13522751311289721
  4. Belk R., Fischer E., Kozinets R.V. (2013). Qualitative Consumer & Marketing Research. London: Sage.
  5. Belk R.W., Kozinets, R.V. (2005). Videography in marketing and consumer research. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, (8)2: 128-41. DOI: 10.1108/13522750510592418
  6. Branthwaite A., Patterson S. (2011). The power of qualitative research in the era of social media. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 14(4): 430-440. DOI: 10.1108/13522751111163245
  7. Caliandro A. (2014). Ethnography in Digital Spaces: Ethnography of Virtual Worlds, Netnography, & Digital Ethnography. In: Denny R. and Sunderland P. (Eds). Handbook of Anthropology in Business. CA: Left Coast Press Inc.
  8. Carley K. and Palmquist M. (1992). Extracting, Representing, and Analyzing Mental Models. Social Forces, 70(3): 601-636. DOI: 10.2307/2579746
  9. Casteleyn J., Mottart A., and Rutten K. (2009). How to use Facebook in your market research. International Journal of Market Research, 51(4): 439-447.
  10. Chaovalit P. and Zhou L. (2005). Movie review mining: a comparison between supervised and unsupervised classification approaches. System Sciences Proceedings of the 38th Annual Hawaii International Conference HICSS’05, Hawaii, USA, IEEE, Washington, DC, p. 112.
  11. Corbin J., Strauss A. (2008). Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. London: Sage Publications.
  12. Cova B., Dalli D. (2009). Working consumers: the next step in marketing theory?. Marketing Theory, 9(3): 315-339. DOI: 10.1177/1470593109338144
  13. Creswell J.W. (2009). Research Design. Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches. CA: Sage.
  14. De Wever B., Schellens T., Valcke M., Van Keer H. (2006). Content analysis schemes to analyze transcripts of online asynchronous discussion groups: A review. Computers & Education, 46(1): 6-28.
  15. Dhaoui C., Webster C.M., Peng Tan L. (2017). Social media sentiment analysis: lexicon versus machine learning, Journal of Consumer Marketing, (34)6: 480-488. DOI: 10.1108/JCM-03-2017-2141
  16. Deshpande M., Sarkar A. (2010). BI and Sentiment Analysis. Business Intelligence Journal, 15(2): 41-50.
  17. Floch J.M. (2001). Visual Identities. Bloomsbury Publishing.
  18. Goncalves H.M., Rey-Martì A., Roig-Tierno N., and Miles M.P. (2016). The Role of Qualitative Research in Current Digital Social Media: Issues and Aspects – An Introduction. Psychology & Marketing, 33(12): 1023-1028.
  19. Gummesson E. (2003). All research is interpretative!. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 18(6/7): 482-92. DOI: 10.1108/08858620310492365
  20. Heisley D.D. (2001). Visual research: current bias and future direction. Advances in Consumer Research, 28(1): 45-46.
  21. Hofacker C.F. (2012). Editorial. On Research Methods in Interactive Marketing. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 26: 1-3.
  22. Hopkins, J., Turner J. (2012). Go Mobile. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  23. Hum N.J., Chamberlin P.E., Hambright B. L., Portwood A.C., Scaht A.C., and Bevan J.L. (2011). A picture is worth a thousand words: A content analysis of Facebook profile photographs. Computers in Human Behaviour, 27: 1828-1833.
  24. Humphreys A., Jen-Hui Wang R. (2017). Automated Text Analysis for Consumer Research. Journal of Consumer Research, 44(6), 1274-1306.
  25. Kassarjian H.H. (1977). Content Analysis in Consumer Research. The Journal of Consumer Research, 4(1): 8-18.
  26. Kozinets R.V. (2002). The Field Behind the Screen: Using Netnography for Marketing Research in Online Communities. Journal of Marketing Research, 39(1): 61-72.
  27. Kozinets R.V. (2010), Netnography. Doing ethnographic research online. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  28. Krippendorff K. (2013). Content Analysis. An introduction to its methodology (3rd Edition). CA: SAGE.
  29. Langer R., Beckam S.C. (2005). Sensitive Research Topics: Netnography Revisited. Qualitative Market Research: an International Journal, 8(2): 189-203. DOI: 10.1108/13522750510592454
  30. Lugli G. (2014). Emotions tracking. Come rispondiamo agli stimoli di marketing. Milano: Apogeo.
  31. Lugli G., Riani M (2018). Espressioni ed impronte facciali nel marketing. Torino: Giappichelli Ed.
  32. Madden A., Ruthven I., McMenemy D. (2013). A classification scheme for content analyses of YouTube video comments. Journal of Documentation, 69(5): 693-714.
  33. Mayan M. J. (2009). Essentials of Qualitative Inquiry. CA: Left Coast Press, Incorporated.
  34. Moon S., Kamakura W.A. (2017). A picture is worth a thousand words: Translating product reviews into a product positioning map. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 34: 265-285.
  35. Morris R. (1994). Computerized content analysis in management research: A demonstration of advantages & limitations. Journal of Management, 20(4), 903-931. DOI: 10.1177/014920639402000410
  36. Murthy D. (2008). Digital Ethnography: An Examination of the Use of New Technologies for Social Research. Sociology, 42(5): 837-855. DOI: 10.1177/0038038508094565
  37. Negri F., Vigolo V. (2015). Hotel Attributes And Visual Image: A Comparison Between Website And User-Generated Photos. In: Tussyadiah I., Inversini A. (Eds). Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism – Proceedings of the International Conference in Lugano. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, pp. 621-634.
  38. O’Connor P. (2010). Managing a Hotel’s Image on TripAdvisor, Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 19(7), 754-772. DOI: 10.1080/19368623.2010.508007
  39. Ottino J.M. (2003). Is a picture worth 1,000 words?. Nature, 421(6922), 474-476.
  40. Reavey P. (Ed) (2011). Visual Methods in Psychology. Using and interpreting images in qualitative research. Hove: Psychology Press.
  41. Ries L. (2015). Visual Hammer: Nail your brand into the mind with the emotional power of a visual. Ries & Ries.
  42. Ritchie J., Lewis J., McNaughton Nicholls C., and Ormston R. (2014). Qualitative Research Practice (2nd edition), London: Sage.
  43. Rohani L.S., Aung M., Rohani K. (2014). One step closer to the field: visual methods in marketing and consumer research, Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 17(4): 300-318. doi 10.1108/QMR-08-2012-0039.
  44. Rose G. (2012). Visual Methodologies (3rd Edition). London: SAGE.
  45. Rowley J. (2008). Understanding digital content marketing. Journal of Marketing Management, 24(5-6): 517-540. DOI: 10.1362/026725708X325977
  46. Saldana J. (2013). The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers (2nd Edition). London: SAGE.
  47. Scott L. (1994). Images in advertising: the need for a theory of visual rhetoric. Journal of Consumer Research, 21: 252-273. DOI: 10.1086/209396
  48. Silverman D. (2014). Interpreting Qualitative Data. London: Sage.
  49. Slater D. (1998). Analysing cultural objects: content analysis and semiotics. In: Seale C. (ed.). Researching Society and Culture. London: Sage, pp. 233-44.
  50. Speck P.S. (1991). The humorous message taxonomy: a framework. Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 13(1); 1-44. DOI: 10.1080/01633392.1991.10504957
  51. Stern B.B. (1995). Consumer myths: Frye’s taxonomy and the structural analysis of consumption texts. Journal of Consumer Research, 22: 165-185. DOI: 10.1086/209443
  52. Thelwall M., Vis F. (2017). Gender and image sharing on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Snapchat and WhatsApp in the UK: Hobbying alone or filtering for friends?. Aslib Journal of Information Management, 69(6): 702-720. DOI: 10.1108/AJIM-04-2017-0098
  53. Tuten T.L., Solomon M.R. (2015). Social Media Marketing (2nd Edition). London: SAGE.

Francesca Negri, A (Social Media) picture is worth a thousand words in "MERCATI & COMPETITIVITÀ" 4/2018, pp 47-64, DOI: 10.3280/MC2018-004004