Formal-informal nexus in academic debates. A literature review

Journal title TERRITORIO
Author/s Arman Fadaei
Publishing Year 2018 Issue 2018/84
Language English Pages 8 P. 167-174 File size 342 KB
DOI 10.3280/TR2018-084023
DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation click here

Below, you can see the article first page

If you want to buy this article in PDF format, you can do it, following the instructions to buy download credits

Article preview

FrancoAngeli is member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc (PILA), a not-for-profit association which run the CrossRef service enabling links to and from online scholarly content.

The debate around informal urbanism has been evolving in planning literature since 1960s. Started by Hart’s notion of informal economy (1973), the term soon found its way into mainstream planning literature. Since then, there has been different approaches regarding both ‘understanding’ and ‘mediation’ in informal city. What have been less discussed in the literature are the place based studies by global South scholars that establish their analysis on the ‘lived experiences’ of residents (Holston, 2009). Even though some research has attempted to present such views, there is little research done on discrepancies between current formal urban planning systems and inhabitants urgencies. In conclusion, attention towards addressing the role of urban planning deficits in emergence of informal settlements seems to be disproportionately low across the literature, calling for another deficit to be addressed.

Keywords: Keywords: urban informality; urban planning; literature review

  1. Abrams C., 1964, Man’s Struggle for Shelter in an Urbanizing World. Cambridge, ma: mit Press.
  2. AlSayyad N., 2004, «Urban Informality as a ‘New’ Way of Life’». In: Roy A., AlSayyad N. (eds.), Urban Informality: Transnational Perspectives from the Middle East, Latin America and South Asia, Oxford: Lexington, 7-30.
  3. Bellanca N., 2010, Una breve introduzione all’economia informale. (accessed on: 2018.03.01).
  4. Bourdieu P., 1986 «The forms of capital». In: Richardson J. (ed.), Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education. New York: Greenwood, 241-258.
  5. Bromley R., 1978, «The Urban Informal Sector: Why Is It Worth Discussing?». World Development, 6, 9-10: 1033-1039.
  6. Burgess R., 1978, «Petty Commodity Housing or Dweller Control? A Critique of John Turner’s View on Housing Policy». World Development, 6, 9-10: 1105-1133.
  7. Cameron J., Gibson C., 2005, «Alternative Pathways to Community and Economic Development: The Latrobe Valley Community Partnering Project». Geographical Research, 43, 3: 274-285.
  8. Castells M., 1998, End of Millennium. Oxford: Blackwell.
  9. Devas N., 2001, «Does city governance matter for the urban poor?». International Planning Studies, 6, 4: 393-408.
  10. Daniels P.W., 2004, «Urban challenges: the formal and informal economies in mega cities». Cities, 21, 6: 501-511.
  11. Davis M., 2006, Planet of Slums. London: Verso.
  12. de Soto H., 1989, The Other Path: The Invisible Revolution in the Third World. New York: Harpercollins.
  13. de Soto H., 2000, The Mystery of Capital: Why capitalism triumphs in the West and fails everywhere else. New York: Basic Books.
  14. García Canclini N., 2005, «The Megalopolis and its Informal Order». In: Brillembourg A., Feireiss K., Klumpner H. (eds.), Informal City: Caracas Case. Munich: Prestel.
  15. Devas N., 1993, «Evolving approaches». In: Devas N., Rakodi C. (eds.), Managing Fast-Growing Cities. Harlow, Essex: Longman, 53-101.
  16. Douglass M., 1998, «World city formation on the Asia Pacific Rim: poverty, ‘everyday’ forms of civil society and environmental management». In: Douglass M., Friedmann J. (eds.), Cities for Citizens: Planning and the rise of civil society in a global age. Chichester: John Wiley, 107-137.
  17. Durand-Lasserve A., 2002, «Informal settlements and the millennium development goals: global policy debates on property ownership and security of tenure». (accessed on: 2018.03.01).
  18. Fernandes E., 2002, «The Influence of de Soto’s The Mystery of Capital». Land Lines, 14: 5-8.
  19. Fernandes E., 2003, «Illegal housing: Law, property rights and urban space». In: Harrison P., Huchzermeyer M., Mayekiso M. (eds.), Confronting fragmentation: housing and urban development in a democratizing society. Cape Town: University of Cape Town Press.
  20. Fernandes E., Varley A., 1998, «Law, the City and Citizenship in Developing Countries: an Introduction». In: Fernandes E., Varley A. (eds.), Illegal Cities: Law and Urban Change in Developing Countries. London: Zed Books, 3-17.
  21. García Canclini N., 2005, «The Megalopolis and its Informal Order». In: Brillembourg A., Feireiss K., Klumpner H. (eds.) Informal City: Caracas Case. Munich: Prestel, 256-258.
  22. Gilbert A., 1999, «A home is forever? Residential mobility and homeownership in self-help settlements». Environment and Planning A, 31, 6: 1073-1091.
  23. Gouverneur D., 2015, Planning and design for future informal settlements: shaping the self-constructed city. Abingdon, Oxon, New York, ny: Routledge.
  24. Hall P., 2002, «The City of Sweat Equity». In: Hall P., Cities of Tomorrow. Oxford: Blackwell, 262-293.
  25. Hardoy J., Satterthwaite D., 1989, Squatter Citizen. London: Earthscan.
  26. Hart K., 1973, «Informal Income Opportunities and Urban Employment in Ghana». Modern African Studies, 11, 1: 61-89.
  27. Holder J., Harrison C.E., 2003, Law and geography. Oxford University Press.
  28. Holston J., 2009, «Insurgent citizenship in an era of global urban peripheries ». City & Society, 21, 2: 245-267.
  29. Huchzermeyer M., 2004b, Unlawful Occupation: Informal settlements and urban policy in South Africa and Brazil. Trenton, nj: Africa World Press.
  30. Huchzermeyer M., 2006, «The new instrument for upgrading informal settlements in South Africa: contributions and constraints». In: Huchzermeyer M., Karam A., Informal settlements: A perpetual challenge? Cape Town: uct Press.
  31. ilo, 1972, Employment, Incomes and Equality: A strategy for increasing productive employment in Kenya. Geneva.
  32. Imparato I., Rusler J., 2003, Slum Upgrading and Participation: Lessons from Latin. Directions in Development. Washington, DC: World Bank.
  33. Lepofsky J., Fraser J.C., 2003, «Building Community Citizens: Claiming the right to place-making in the city». Urban Studies, 40, 1: 127-142.
  34. Jenkins P., 2004, «Beyond the formal/informal dichotomy: access to land in Maputo, Mozambique». In: Hansen K.T., Vaa M., Reconsidering informality: Perspectives from urban Africa. Nordic Africa Institute.
  35. Jenkins P., 2006, «Informal settlements: infernal and eternal. The role of research in advocacy and Informal Urban Settlements in Angola». In: Huchzermeyer M., Karam A., Informal settlements: A perpetual challenge? Cape Town: uct Press.
  36. Lombard M., 2014, «Constructing ordinary places. Place-making in urban informal settlements in Mexico». Progress in Planning, 94: 1-53.
  37. Moser C., 1994, «The Informal Sector Debate, Part 1: 1970-1983». In: Rakowski C. (ed.), Contrapunto: The Informal Sector Debate in Latin America. Albany, ny: State University of New York Press, 11-29.
  38. Moser C., Peake L., eds., 1987, Women, Human Settlements and Housing. London: Tavistock Publications.
  39. Njoh A., 2003, Planning in contemporary Africa: The state town planning and society in Cameroon. Aldershot, uk: Ashgate.
  40. Pieterse E., 2011, «Rethinking African urbanism from the slum». Power, 26, 14.1: 40-8.
  41. Pieterse E.A., Simone A.M., 2013, eds., Rogue urbanism: emergent African cities. Auckland Park, South Africa: Jacana.
  42. Perlman J., 1976, The Myth of Marginality: Urban Poverty and Politics in Rio de Janeiro. Berkeley, Cal.: University of California Press.
  43. Perlman J., 2004, «Marginality: from myth to reality in the favelas of Rio de Janeiro, 1969–2002». In: Roy A., AlSayyad N. (eds.), Urban Informality: Transnational Perspectives from the Middle East, Latin America, and South Asia. Lanham, md: Lexington Books, 105-146.
  44. Perry G., Maloney W., Arias O., Fajnzylber P., Mason A., Saavedra-Chanduvi J., 2007, Informality: Exit and Exclusion. Washington: World Bank.
  45. Rakowski C., 1994a, «Introduction: What Debate?». In: Id. (ed.), Contrapunto: The Informal Sector Debate in Latin America. Albany, ny: State University of New York Press, 3-10.
  46. Rakowski C., 1994b, «The Informal Sector Debate, Part 2: 1984-1993». In: Id. (ed.), Contrapunto: The Informal Sector Debate in Latin America. Albany, ny: State University of New York Press, 31-50.
  47. Rao V., 2006, «Slum as theory: the South/Asian city and globalization». International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 30, 1: 225-232.
  48. Romero G., 2003, «Social Production of Habitat: Reflections on its History, Conceptions and Proposals». Trialog, 3, 78: 8-15.
  49. Roy A., 2005, «Urban Informality: Toward an Epistemology of Planning». Journal of the American Planning Association, 71, 2: 147-158.
  50. Souza P.R., Tokman V.E., 1976, «The Informal Urban Sector in Latin America». International Labour Review, 114, 3: 355-365.
  51. The World Factbook 2013-14. Washington, dc: Central Intelligence Agency, 2013. (accessed on: 2018.03.01).
  52. Turner J., 1968, «Uncontrolled Urban Settlement: Problems and Policies». In: Breese G. (ed.), The City in Newly Developing Countries: Readings on Urbanism and Urbanisation. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
  53. Turner J., Fichter R., eds., 1972, Freedom to Build: Dweller control of the housing process. New York: Collier-Macmillan.
  54. UN-Habitat, 2006, The State of the World’s Cities Report 2006/2007. The millennium development goals and urban sustainability: 30 Years of Shaping the Habitat Agenda. London: Earthscan.
  55. UN-Habitat, 2013, State of the world’s cities 2012/2013: Harmonious Cities. Nairobi: United Nations Human Settlements Programme.
  56. Vaiou D., 1997, «Informal cities? Women’s work and informal activities on the margins of the European Union». In: Lee R., Wills J. (eds.), Geographies of Economies. London: Arnold, 321-330.
  57. Varley A., 2008, «Postcolonialising informality?». Paper given at workshop, ‘From Villas Miseria to Colonias Populares: Latin America’s Informal Cities in Comparative Perspective’, 8-9 May, Northwestern University Program on Latin American and Caribbean Studies, Evanston, Illinois.
  58. Ward P.M., ed., 1982, Self-help housing: a critique. London: Mansell.
  59. Watson V., 2009, «‘The planned city sweeps the poor away…’: Urban planning and 21st century urbanisation». Progress in Planning, 72, 3: 151-193.
  60. Watson V., 2009, «Seeing from the South: Refocusing Urban Planning on the Globe's Central Urban Issues». Urban Studies, 46, 11: 2259-2275. DOI: 10.1177/0042098009342598

  • Urbanización informal en Bogotá, entre la teoría y la política urbana Milena Rincón Castellanos, Jaime Hernández-García, in urbe. Revista Brasileira de Gestão Urbana e20210276/2022
    DOI: 10.1590/2175-3369.014.e20210276
  • Informal Disaster Diplomacy Patrizia I. Duda, Ilan Kelman, in Societies /2022 pp.8
    DOI: 10.3390/soc13010008

Arman Fadaei, Formal-informal nexus in academic debates. A literature review in "TERRITORIO" 84/2018, pp 167-174, DOI: 10.3280/TR2018-084023