Contract law, reproductive justice, and LGBT instances in surrogate motherhood: some reflections.

Author/s Luca Guizzardi
Publishing Year 2021 Issue 2021/1 Language Italian
Pages 24 P. 119-142 File size 301 KB
DOI 10.3280/SD2021-001005
DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation click here

Below, you can see the article first page

If you want to buy this article in PDF format, you can do it, following the instructions to buy download credits

Article preview

FrancoAngeli is member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc (PILA), a not-for-profit association which run the CrossRef service enabling links to and from online scholarly content.

This paper reflects on surrogacy, by taking into consideration three major items. The first one concerns surrogacy as contractual practice and the possibility to subsume numerous relational dimensions under contractual schemes. The second item relates to surrogacy as reproductive justice, namely by delving into the issue of whether the area of reproductive rights includes women’s choice of being surrogate mothers. The third one addresses the issue of surrogacy as a possible LGBT right to have access to medically assisted procreation. In the final remarks, the author tries to outline a ‘queer’ ontology of the person, by seeking to identify two legal models that are sketched in the article.

Keywords: Surrogacy - Contract Law - Reproductive Justice - LGBT- Queer - Vulnerability

  1. Agosta, Stefano, 2018. In fuga dai divieti: una riflessione sulla proibizione italiana della gestazione per altri. Quaderni costituzionali, XXXVIII, 1: 79-113.
  2. Anderson, Linda S., 2013. Legislative Oppression: Restricting Gestational Surrogacy to Married Couples Is an Attempt to Legislate Morality. University of Baltimore Law Review, 42, 4: 611-654.
  3. Andrews, Lori B., 1988. Surrogate Motherhood: The Challenge for Feminists. Law, Medicine & Health Care, 16, 1-2: 72-80.
  4. Annas, George J., 1988. Fairy Tales Surrogate Mothers Tell. Law, Medicine & Healthcare, 16, 1-2: 27-33.
  5. Asian Communities for Reproductive Justice, 2005. A New Vision for Advancing Our Movement for Reproductive Health, Reproductive Rights and Reproductive Justice, -- (accessed 15 March 2020).
  6. Bailey, Alison, 2011. Reconceiving Surrogacy: Toward a Reproductive Justice Account of Indian Surrogacy. Hypatia, 26, 4: 715-741.
  7. Balzano, Angela, 2017a. In bilico tra mercificazione del biologico e autodeterminazione delle donne: oltre il divieto di surrogacy. Politeia, XXXIII, 128: 22-41.
  8. —, 2017b. Gestazione per altri e mercato della riproduzione. Il Mulino, 4: 564-572.
  9. Baratta, Roberto, 2016. Diritti fondamentali e riconoscimento dello status filii in casi di maternità surrogata: la primazia degli interessi del minore. Diritti umani e diritto internazionale, 10, 2: 309-334.
  10. Berend, Zsuzsa, 2016. The Online World of Surrogacy. Oxford-New York: Berghahn Books.
  11. Bosisio, Roberta, & Joëlle Long, 2020. Famiglie omogenitoriali in Italia. Relazioni di filiazione e pratiche di responsabilità genitoriale. Sociologia del diritto, XLVII, 1: 153-176.
  12. Boucai, Michael, 2016. Is Assisted Procreation an LGBT Right? Wisconsin Law Review, 6: 1065-1125.
  13. Busby, Karen, & Delaney Vun, 2010. Revisiting the Handmaid’s Tale: Feminist Theory Meets Empirical Research on Surrogate Mothers. Canadian Journal of Family Law, 26: 13-93.
  14. Capron, Alexander M., & Margaret J. Radin, 1988. Choosing Family Law over Contract Law as a Paradigm for Surrogate Motherhood. Law, Medicine & Health Care, 16, 1-2: 34-43.
  15. Choudhury, Cyra A., 2015. The Political Economy and Legal Regulation of Transnational Commercial Surrogate Labor. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 48, 1: 1-65.
  16. Cooper, Melinda, & Catherine Waldby, 2015. Biolavoro globale. Corpi e nuova manodopera. Roma: DeriveApprodi.
  17. Courduriès, Jerôme, 2018. At the Nation’s Doorstep: The Fate of Children in France born via Surrogacy. Reproductive BioMedicine and Society Online, 7: 47-54.
  18. Dana, Anne R., 2011. The ‘State’ of Surrogacy Laws: Determinations of Legal Parenthood for Gay Fathers. Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy, 18: 353-390.
  19. Dempsey, Deborah, 2014. Relating Across International Borders: Gay Men Forming Families through Overseas Surrogacy. In Marcia C. Inhorn, Wendy Chavking & José-Alberto Navarro (eds.), Globalized Fatherhood. New York: Berghahn Books.
  20. Dillaway, Heather E., 2008. Mothers for Others: A Race, Class, and Gender Analysis of Surrogacy. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, 34, 2: 301-326.
  21. Epstein, Richard A., 1995. Surrogacy: The Case for Full Contractual Enforcement. Virginia Law Review, 81: 2305-2341.
  22. Fineman, Martha Albertson, 2008. The Vulnerable Subject: Anchoring Equality in the Human Condition. Yale Journal of Law & Feminism, 20, 1: 1-23.
  23. —, 2009. Introduction: Feminist and Queer Legal Theory. In Martha Albertson Fineman, Jack E. Jackson & Adam P. Romero (eds.), Feminist and Queer Legal Theory: Intimate Encounters, Uncomfortable Conversations. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Company.
  24. —, 2013. Feminism, Masculinities, and Multiple Identities. Nevada Law Journal, 13, 101: 101-123.
  25. —, 2017. Vulnerability and Inevitable Inequality. Oslo Law Review, 4: 133-149.
  26. Fisher, Ann M., 2013. The Journey of Gestational Surrogacy: Religion, Spirituality and Assisted Reproductive Technologies. International Journal of Children’s Spirituality, 18, 3: 235-246.
  27. Forman, Deborah L., 2015. Abortion Clauses in Surrogacy Contracts: Insights from a Case Study. Family Law Quarterly, 49, 1: 29-54.
  28. Gerber, Paula, & Katie O’Byrne, 2015. Souls in the House of Tomorrow: The Rights of Children Born via Surrogacy. In Paula Gerber & Katie O’Byrne (eds.), Surrogacy, Law and Human Rights. Abingdon: Routledge.
  29. Guerzoni, Corinna S., 2020. Sistemi procreativi. Etnografia dell’omogenitorialità in Italia. Milano: FrancoAngeli.
  30. —, & Tatiana Motterle, 2018. Sul corpo delle surrogate. Analisi del discorso pubblico italiano sulla gestazione per altri. gender/sexuality/italy, 5: 160-178.
  31. Guizzardi, Luca, 2018. Nostro figlio. La maternità surrogata tra dono, diritto e contratto. Quaderni di teoria sociale, 2: 79-101.
  32. —, 2020a. ‘Facciamo un figlio?’ La presenza del Terzo nel progetto di due mamme o di due papà di avere un figlio. Sociologia italiana, 15: 87-109.
  33. —, 2020b. What We Talk About When We Talk About Surrogacy. The Symbolic Representations of Surrogate Motherhood among Gays. Italian Sociological Review, 3: 579-603.
  34. —, 2020c. Alcune riflessioni sulla gestazione per altri. Iride, XXXIII, 3: 269-288.
  35. Gunnarsson Payne, Jenny, Elzbieta Korolczuk, & Signe Mezinska, 2020. Surrogacy Relationships: A Critical Interpretative Review. Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, 125, 2: 183-191.
  36. Hill, John L., 1990. The Case for Enforcement of the Surrogate Contract. Politics and the Life Sciences, 8, 2: 147-160.
  37. Levy, Elizabeth J., 2014. Virgin Fathers: Paternity Law, Assisted Reproductive Technology, and the Legal Bias against Gay Dads. Journal of Gender, Social Policy & the Law, 22, 4: 893-913.
  38. Lewin, Ellen, 2009. Gay Fatherhood. Narratives of Family and Citizenship in America. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.
  39. Luna, Zakiya, & Kristin Luker, 2013. Reproductive Justice. Annual Review of Law and Social Science, 9: 327-352.
  40. Margalit, Yehezkel, 2014. In Defense of Surrogacy Agreements: A Modern Contract Law Perspective. William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice, 20, 2: 423-468.
  41. Marvel, Stu, 2013. Polymorphous Reproductivity and the Critique of Futurity: Toward a Queer Legal Analytic for Fertility Law. Jindal Global Law Review, 4, 2: 294-312.
  42. Mazer, Deborah S., 2016. Born Breach: The Challenge of Remedies in Surrogacy Contract. Yale Journal of Law and Feminism, 28: 211-241.
  43. NeJaime, Douglas, 2017. The Nature of Parenthood. The Yale Law Journal, 126: 2262-2381.
  44. Pande, Amrita, 2014. Wombs in Labor. Transnational Commercial Surrogacy in India. New York: Columbia University Press.
  45. —, 2016. Global Reproductive Inequalities, Neo-eugenics and Commercial Surrogacy in India. Current Sociology, 64, 2: 244-258.
  46. Peterson, Joyce, 2016. Baby M: American Feminists Respond to a Controversial Case. Journal of Women’s History, 28, 2: 103-125.
  47. Posner, Richard A., 1989. The Ethics and Economics of Enforcing Contracts of Surrogate Motherhood. Journal of Contemporary Health Law and Policy, 5: 21-31.
  48. Ragoné, Heléna, 1994. Surrogate Motherhood. Conception in the Heart. Boudler-San Francisco-Oxford: Westview Press.
  49. Rivera, Ilaria, 2020. La complessa questione della maternità surrogata tra rispetto dell’ordine pubblico e protezione del best interest of the child: un percorso ermeneutico non sempre coerente. Sociologia del diritto, XLVII, 1: 201-222.
  50. Ross, Loretta, 2006. Understanding Reproductive Justice: Transforming the Pro-Choice Movement. Off Our Backs, 36, 4: 14-19.
  51. Rozée, Virginia, 2018. La gestation pour autrui en Inde, un révélateur de la condition des femmes dans le pays. In Isabel Côté, Kévin Lavoie & Jérôme Courduriès (dir.), Perspectives internationales sur la gestation pour autrui. Expériences des personnes concernées et contextes d’action. Québec: Presses de l’Université du Québec.
  52. —, & Sayeed Unisa, 2014. Surrogacy from a Reproductive Rights Perspective: The Case of India. Autrepart, 2, 70: 185-203.
  53. Rudrappa, Sharmila, 2012a. India’s Reproductive Assembly Line. Contexts, 11, 2: 22-27.
  54. —, 2012b. Working India’s Reproduction Assembly Line: Surrogacy and Reproductive Rights. Western Humanities Review, 66, 3: 77-101.
  55. —, 2015. Discounted Life: The Price of Global Surrogacy. New York: New York University Press.
  56. Ruparelia, Rakhi, 2007. Giving Away the ‘Gift of Life’: Surrogacy and the Canadian Assisted Human Reproduction Act. Canadian Journal of Family Law, 23: 11-54.
  57. Saravanan, Sheela, 2010. Transnational Surrogacy and Objectification of Gestational Mothers. Economic and Political Weekly, 45, 16: 26-29.
  58. Smith, George P. II, 1988. The Case of Baby M: Love’s Labor Lost. Law, Medicine & Health Care, 16: 121-125.
  59. Spitko, Gary E., 2005. From Queer to Paternity: How Primary Gay Fathers are Changing Fatherhood and Gay Identity. Saint Louis University Public Law Review, 24: 195-220.
  60. Stacey, Judith, 2005. The Families of Man: Gay Male Intimacy and Kinship in a Global Metropolis. Signs, 30, 3: 1911-1935.
  61. —, 2006. Gay Parenthood and the Decline of Paternity as We Knew It. Sexualities, 9, 1: 27-55.
  62. Steinbock, Bonnie, 1988. Surrogate Motherhood as Prenatal Adoption. Law, Medicine & Health Care, 16: 44-50.
  63. Strasser, Mark, 2015. Traditional Surrogacy Contracts, Partial Enforcement, and the Challenge for Family Law. Journal of Health Care Law and Policy, 18, 1: 85-113.
  64. Théry, Irène, 2010. Des humaines comme les autres. Bioéthique, anonymat et genre du don. Paris: Éditions de l’École des hautes études en sciences sociales.
  65. Viviani, Debora, 2020. Surrogacy: the Apotheosis of Control. Italian Sociological Review, 3: 613-654.
  66. Williams, Alexus, 2018. State Regulatory Efforts in Protecting a Surrogate’s Bodily Autonomy. Seton Hall Law Review, 49: 205-231.

Luca Guizzardi, Contrattualità, giustizia riproduttiva e istanze LGBT nella surrogacy: alcune riflessioni in "SOCIOLOGIA DEL DIRITTO " 1/2021, pp 119-142, DOI: 10.3280/SD2021-001005