The use of pornography. Diffusion, problematic use and possible interventions

Author/s Roberta Rossi, Stefano Eleuteri
Publishing Year 2021 Issue 2021/2
Language Italian Pages 15 P. 37-51 File size 142 KB
DOI 10.3280/PSOB2021-002002
DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation click here

Below, you can see the article first page

If you want to buy this article in PDF format, you can do it, following the instructions to buy download credits

Article preview

FrancoAngeli is member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc (PILA), a not-for-profit association which run the CrossRef service enabling links to and from online scholarly content.

Thanks to the Internet, pornography is accessible anywhere, anonymity is guaranteed, and different varieties of content can be found. Furthermore, many websites, offer the possibility to use the material for free. The negative and positive aspects of pornography depend on the use that one makes of it. Pornography has evolved over time and is now confronted with Covid-19; in fact, the content has also undergone a change. Dealing with the problematic use of online pornography is a com plex issue: the biopsychosocial model helps us to take into account the different aspects of the issue both in the reading as well as assessing a possible clinical intervention.

Keywords: pornography; addiction; coronavirus porn; consequences; biopsychosocial model.

  1. Ayres M.M., Haddock S.A. (2009) “Therapists’ approaches in working with heterosexual couples struggling with male partners’ online sexual behavior”, Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 16(1): 55-78. DOI: 10.1080/1072016080271195
  2. Balzarini R.N., Muise A., Zoppolat G., Di Bartolomeo A., Rodrigues D.L., Alonso-Ferres M., Slatcher R.B. (2020) Love in the Time of Covid: Perceived Partner Responsiveness Buffers People from Lower Relationship Quality Associated with Covid-Related Stressors.
  3. Cellini N., Canale N., Mioni G., Costa S. (2020) “Changes in sleep pattern, sense of time and digital media use during Covid-19 lockdown in Italy”, J. Sleep Res., 29(4): e13074.
  4. Cocci A., Giunti D., Tonioni C., Cacciamani G., Tellini R., Polloni G., Cito G., Presicce F., Di Mauro M., Minervini A., Cimino S., Russo G.I. (2020) “Love at the time of the Covid-19 pandemic: preliminary results of an online survey conducted during the quarantine in Italy”, Int. J. Impot. Res., 32: 556-557.
  5. Cooper A., Delmonico D.L., Burg R. (2000) “Cybersex users, abusers, and compulsives: New findings and implications”, Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 7(1-2): 5-29. DOI: 10.1080/1072016000840020
  6. Cooper A., Putnam D.E., Planchon L.A., Boies S.C. (1999) “Online sexual compulsivity: Getting tangled in the net”, Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 6(2): 79–104. DOI: 10.1080/1072016990840018
  7. Cotigă A.C., Dumitrache S.D. (2015) “Men’s Sexual Life and Repeated Exposure to Pornography. A New Issue?”, Journal of Experiential Psychotherapy, 18, 4(72).
  8. Daneback K., Ross M.W., Mansson S.A. (2006) “Characteristics and behaviors of sexual compulsives who use the Internet for sexual purposes”, Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity, 13(1): 53-67. DOI: 10.1080/1072016050052927
  9. Dong H., Yang F., Lu X., Hao W. (2020) “Internet Addiction and Related Psychological Factors Among Children and Adolescents in China During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) Epidemic”, Front. Psychiatry, 11: 00751.
  10. Doornwaard S., Eijnden R., Baams L., Vanwesenbeeck I., Bogt T. (2016) “Lower psychological well-being and excessive sexual interest predict symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material among adolescent boys”, Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 45(1): 73-84.
  11. Doring N. (2020) “How Is the Covid-19 Pandemic Affecting Our Sexualities? An Overview of the Current Media Narratives and Research Hypotheses”, Arch. Sex Behav., 49: 2765-2778.
  12. Duffy A., Dawson D.L., das Nair R. (2016) “Pornography addiction in adults: A systematic review of definitions and reported impact”, Journal of Sexual Medicine, 13(5): 760-777.
  13. Egan V., Parmar R. (2013) “Dirty habits? Online pornography use, personality, obsessionality, and compulsivity”, J. Sex Marital Ther., 39(5): 394-409. DOI: 10.1080/0092623X.2012.71018
  14. Gilliland R., South M., Carpenter B.N., Hardy S.A. (2011) “The roles of shame and guilt in hypersexual behavior”, Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 18(1): 12-29. DOI: 10.1080/10720162.2011.55118
  15. Gola M., Potenza M.N. (2016) “Paroxetine Treatment of Problematic Pornography Use: A Case Series”, J. Behav. Addict, 5(3): 529-32. DOI: 10.1556/2006.5.2016.04
  16. Grant J., Chamberlain S. (2015) “Psychopharmacological options for treating impulsivity”, Psychiatric Times, 32(8): 58-61.
  17. Grubbs J.B. (2020) “Porn use is up, thanks to the pandemic: Self-isolation can be boring and lonely”, The Conversation. mic-134972
  18. Grubbs J.B., Exline J., Pargament K., Hook J., Carlisle R. (2015) “Transgression as addiction: Religiosity and moral disapproval as predictors of perceived addiction to pornography”, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44(1): 125-136.
  19. Grubbs J.B., Wright P.J., Braden A.L., Wilt J.A., Kraus S.W. (2019) “Internet pornography use and sexual motivation: A systematic review and integration”, Ann. Int. Commun. Assoc, 43: 117-155. DOI: 10.1080/23808985.2019.158404
  20. Hald G.M., Malamuth N.M. (2008) “Self-perceived effects of pornography consumption”, Arch. Sex Behav., 37(4): 614-25.
  21. Karila L., Wery A., Weinstein A., Cottencin O., Petit A., Reynaud M., Billieux J.
  22. (2014) “Sexual addiction or hypersexual disorder: Different terms for the same problem? A review of the literature”, Current Pharmaceutical Design, 20(25): 4012-4020. DOI: 10.2174/1381612811319999061
  23. Kasper T.E., Short M.B., Milam A.C. (2015) “Narcissism and Internet pornography use”, Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 41(5): 481-486. DOI: 10.1080/0092623X.2014.93131
  24. Kraus S.W., Martino S., Potenza M.N. (2016a) “Clinical characteristics of men interested in seeking treatment for use of pornography”, Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 5(2): 169-178. DOI: 10.1556/2006.5.2016.03
  25. Kraus S.W., Meshberg-Cohen S., Martino S., Quinones L.J., Potenza M.N.
  26. (2015) “Treatment of Compulsive Pornography Use With Naltrexone: A Case Report”, Am. J. Psychiatry, 172(12): 1260-1.
  27. Kraus S.W., Voon V., Potenza M.N. (2016b) “Should compulsive sexual behavior be considered an addiction?”, Addiction, 111(12): 2097-2106.
  28. Lehmiller J.J., Justin R. Garcia J.R., Amanda N. Gesselman A.N., Mark K.P. (2020) “Less Sex, but More Sexual Diversity: Changes in Sexual Behavior during the Covid-19 Coronavirus Pandemic”, Leisure Sciences, 43: 1-2, 295-304. DOI: 10.1080/01490400.2020.177401
  29. Meerkerk G.J., Van Den Eijnden R.J., Garretsen H.F. (2006) “Predicting compulsive Internet use: It’s all about sex!”, CyberPsychology & Behavior, 9: 95-103.
  30. Mestre-Bach G., Blycker G.R., Potenza M.N. (2020) “Pornography use in the setting of the Covid-19 pandemic”, Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 9: 181-183. DOI: 10.1556/2006.2020.0001
  31. Metson C.M., Buss D.M. (2007) “Why humans have sex?”, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 36(4): 477-507.
  32. Mick T.M., Hollander E. (2006) “Impulsive-compulsive sexual behavior”, CNS Spectrums, 11(12): 944-955. DOI: 10.1017/S109285290001513
  33. Orzack M.H., Ross C.J. (2000) “Should virtual sex be treated like other sex addictions?”, Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 7(1-2): 113-125.
  34. 10.1080/10720160008400210 Peretti-Watel P., Alleaume C., Leger D., The Coconel Group et al. (2020) “Anxiety, depression and sleep problems: a second wave of Covid-19”, General Psychiatry, 33: e100299.
  35. Philaretou A.G., Mahfouz A.Y., Allen K.R. (2005) “Use of Internet pornography and men’s well-being”, International Journal of Men’s Health, 4(2): 149-169.
  36. Pornhub (2020) Coronavirus Update – April 14 – Pornhub Insights. --
  37. Reay B., Attwood N., Gooder C. (2013) “Inventing sex: The short history of sex addiction”, Sexuality & Culture, 17: 1-19.
  38. Reisman Y., Porst H., Lowenstein L., Tripodi F., Kirana S.P. (2015) The ESSM Manual of Sexual Medicine, Medix, Amsterdam.
  39. Rinehart N.J., McCabe M.P. (1998) “An empirical investigation of hypersexuality”, Sexual & Marital Therapy, 13(4): 369-384. DOI: 10.1080/0267465980840425
  40. Rodrigues D.L., Lopes D., Dawson K., de Visser R., Štulhofer A. (2020) “With or without you: Associations between frequency of Internet pornography use and sexual relationship outcomes for (non) consensual (non)monogamous individuals”, Archives of Sexual Behavior.
  41. Ross M.W., Mansson S.A., Daneback K. (2012) “Prevalence, severity, and correlates of problematic sexual Internet use in Swedish men and women”, Arch. Sex Behav., 41(2): 459-66.
  42. Samenow C.P. (2010) “A Biopsychosocial Model of Hypersexual Disorder/Sexual Addiction”, The Journal of Treatment & Prevention, 17, 2: 69-81. DOI: 10.1080/10720162.2010.48130
  43. Sbraga T.P., O’Donohue W.T. (2003) The sex addiction workbook: Proven strategies to help you regain control of your life, New Harbinger Publications, Oakland, CA
  44. Schiavi M.C., Spina V., Zullo M.A. et al. (2020) “Love in the time of Covid-19: sexual function and quality of life analysis during the social distancing measures in a group of Italian reproductive-age women”, J. Sex Med., 17: 1407-1413.
  45. Short M.B., Wetterneck C.T., Bistricky S.L., Shutter T., Chase T.E. (2016)
  46. “Clinicians’ beliefs, observations, and treatment effectiveness regarding clients’ sexual addiction and Internet pornography use”, Community Mental Health Journal, 52(8): 1070-1081.
  47. Simonelli C., Fabrizi A., Rossi R., Tripodi F. (2019) Sessuologia clinica. Diagnosi, trattamento e linee guida internazionali, FrancoAngeli, Milano
  48. Sirianni J.M., Vishwanath A. (2016) “Problematic Online Pornography Use: A Media Attendance Perspective”, J. Sex Res., 53(1): 21-34. DOI: 10.1080/00224499.2014.980496
  49. Sniewski L., Farvid P., Carter P. (2018) “The assessment and treatment of adult heterosexual men with self-perceived problematic pornography use: A review”, Addict Behav., 77: 217-224. Neuroscience & Psychology, 3: 1-12.
  50. Sun Y., Li Y., Bao Y., Meng S., Sun Y., Schumann G., Kosten T., Strang J., Lu L., Shi J. (2020) “Brief Report: Increased Addictive Internet and Substance Use Behavior During the Covid?19 Pandemic in China”, Am. J. Addict, 29: 268-270.
  51. Twohig M.P., Crosby J.M. (2010) “Acceptance and commitment therapy as a treatment for problematic Internet pornography viewing”, Behav. Ther., 41(3): 285-95.
  52. Twohig M.P., Crosby J.M., Cox J.M. (2009) “Viewing Internet pornography: For whom is it problematic, how, and why?”, Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 16(4): 253-266. DOI: 10.1080/1072016090330078
  53. Wetternec C.T., Burgess A.J., Short M.B., Smith A.H., Cervantes M.E. (2012) “The role of sexual compulsivity, impulsivity, and experiential avoidance in Internet pornography use”, The Psychological Record, 62(1): 3-18. DOI: 10.1007/BF0339578
  54. Willoughby B.J., Leonhardt N.D. (2020). Behind closed doors: Individual and joint pornography use among romantic couples. The Journal of Sex Research, 57(1): 77-91. DOI: 10.1080/00224499.2018.154144
  55. Wood H. (2011) “The internet and its role in the escalation of sexually compulsive behaviour”, Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy, 25, 2: 127-142. DOI: 10.1080/02668734.2011.57649
  56. Zattoni F., Gul M., Soligo M., Morlacco A., Motterle G., Collavino J., Barneschi
  57. A.C., Moschini M., Moro F.D. (2020) “The impact of Covid-19 pandemic on pornography habits: a global analysis of Google Trends”, Int. J. Impot Res., 28: 1-8.

Roberta Rossi, Stefano Eleuteri, L’utilizzo della pornografia. Diffusione, uso problematico e possibili interventi in "PSICOBIETTIVO" 2/2021, pp 37-51, DOI: 10.3280/PSOB2021-002002