The equalising power of internal immigration and the desertification process of southern Italy

Author/s Giorgio Liotti, Salvatore Villani
Publishing Year 2015 Issue 2014/114
Language English Pages 27 P. 51-77 File size 235 KB
DOI 10.3280/STE2014-114003
DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation click here

Below, you can see the article first page

If you want to buy this article in PDF format, you can do it, following the instructions to buy download credits

Article preview

FrancoAngeli is member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc (PILA), a not-for-profit association which run the CrossRef service enabling links to and from online scholarly content.

According to some scholars, immigration can have a relevant role in the reduction of inequality. It has happened in the past and it may also happen in the future, as it is possible and desirable. However, migration in itself does not resolve definitely the issue of the inequalities and, moreover, in light of the recent studies on the effect of immigration, the exigency of additional in depth research on the impact of this phenomenon on regional disparities and income inequalities has become evident. The present paper faces these relevant issues, focusing on the regional impact of internal migration and attempting to demonstrate, with reference to the Italian case, how out-migration can increase income inequalities, thus hindering economic growth and exacerbating regional disparities, while immigration can reduce income inequalities and mitigate economic imbalances, according to the hypothesis of skilled immigration equalising, formulated in 2008 by Kahanec and Zimmermann.

Keywords: Income Inequality, Migration, Economic Growth, Redistribution through Immigration.

Jel codes: C23, E64, J15, R10

  1. Aaberge R., Brandolini A. (2014), Multidimensional poverty and inequality, “Temi di discussione”, Working Paper No. 976, September.
  2. Baltagi B. (2000), Advances in Econometrics, Vol. 15: Nonstationary Panels, Panel Cointegration, and Dynamic Panels, JAI Press, Amsterdam.
  3. Barham B., Boucher S. (1995), Migration, Remittances, and Inequality: Estimating the Net Effects of Migration on Income Distribution, Journal of Development Economics, 55, 307-31.
  4. Black R., Natali C., Skinner J. (2005), Migration and Inequality, World Bank, Washington, DC.
  5. Bodvarsson O.B., Van den Berg H. (2009), The Economics of Immigration: Theory and Policy, Springer, New York and Heidelberg, first edition.
  6. Bodvarsson O.B., Van den Berg H. (2013), The Economics of Immigration: Theory and Policy, Springer, New York and Heidelberg, second edition.
  7. Borjas G.J., Freeman R. (1992), Immigration and the Work Force: Economic Consequences for the United States and Source Countries, Chicago, University of Chicago Press.
  8. Borjas G.J., Freeman R., Katz L. (1992), On The Labor Market Effects of Immigration and Trade, in Borjas G.J., Freeman R. (1992), Immigration and the Workforce: Economic Consequences for the United States and Source Areas, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA, January, 213-44.
  9. Borjas G.J. (1994), The Economics of Immigration, Journal of Economic Literature, 32, December, 1667-1717.
  10. Borjas G.J. (2014), Immigration Economics, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA.
  11. Breitung J. (2000), The Local Power of Some Unit Root Tests for Panel Data, in Baltagi B. (2000), Advances in Econometrics: Nonstationary Panels, Panel Cointegration, and Dynamic Panels, 15, 161-178.
  12. Brettell C.B., Hollifield J.F. (2000), Migration theory: Talking across disciplines, Routledge, New York.
  13. Bucovetsky S. (2003), Efficient migration and redistribution, Journal of Public Economics, 87, 2459-2474.
  14. Card D. (2009), Immigration and Inequality, American Economic Review, 99, 2, 1-21.
  15. Cardinale S. (2012), Il brain-drain sud-nord in Italia dal 1990 ad oggi, Eunomia, 1(2), 171-191.
  16. Casacchia O., Strozza S. (2001), Le migrazioni interne e internazionali in Italia dall’unità ad oggi: un quadro complessivo, in Di Comite L., Paterno A. (2001), Quelli di fuori. Dall’emigrazione all’immigrazione: il caso italiano, FrancoAngeli, Milan, 50-88.
  17. Casacchia O., Natale L., Guarneri A. (2009), Tra i banchi di scuola. Alunni stranieri e italiani a Roma e nel Lazio, FrancoAngeli, Milan.
  18. Castles S. (2007), Can Migration be an Instrument for Reducing Inequality?, paper presented at the International Metropolis Conference, Melbourne, 8-12 October. Chiswick B.R. (1983), An Analysis of the Earnings and Employment of Asian-American Men, Journal of Labor Economics, 1(2), 197-214, April.
  19. Chiswick B.R. (1992), Jewish immigrant wages in America in 1909: An analysis of the dillingham commission data, Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, 29(3), 274-289, July.
  20. Chiswick B.R. (1998), Hebrew language usage: Determinants and effects on earnings among immigrants in Israel, Journal of Population Economics, Springer, 11(2), 253-271.
  21. Chiswick B.R. (2000), Are Immigrants Favorably Self-Selected? An Economic Analysis, in Brettell C.D., Hollifield J.H. (eds.), Migration Theory: Talking Across the Disciplines, New York, Routledge, 52-76.
  22. Chiswick B.R., Chiswick C.U., Karras G. (1992), The impact of immigrants on the macroeconomy, Journal of Monetary Economics, 37(1), 279-316, December.
  23. Choi I. (2001), Unit Root Tests for Panel Data, Journal of International Money and Finance, 20, 249-272.
  24. Cingano F. (2014), Trends in Income Inequality and Its Impact on Economic Growth, OECD SEM Working Paper No. 163, OECD Publishing, Paris.
  25. Collier P. (2013), Exodus. Immigration and Multiculturalism in the 21st Century, Oxford University Press, USA; trad. italiana: Collier P. (2015), Exodus. I tabùdell’immigrazione, Laterza, Roma-Bari.
  26. Constant A.F., Zimmermann K.F. (2013), International Handbook on the Economics of Migration, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK, and Northampton, USA.
  27. Davies J.B., Wooton I. (1992), Income Inequality and International Migration, The Economic Journal, 102, 413, July, 789-802.
  28. De Haas H. (2005), International migration, remittances and development: Myths and facts, Third World Quarterly, 26(8), 1269-1284.
  29. De Haas H. (2007), Remittances and social development: A conceptual review of the literature, Geneva, UNRISD, Social Policy and Development Programme Paper No. 34.
  30. Di Comite L., Paterno A. (2001), Quelli di fuori. Dall’emigrazione all’immigrazione: il caso italiano, FrancoAngeli, Milan.
  31. D’Isanto F., Liotti G., Musella M. (2014), La mobilità giovanile nell’immobilità strutturale, Rivista Economica del Mezzogiorno, 4, 791-816.
  32. Driscoll J.C., Kraay A.C. (1998), Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimation with Spatially Dependent Panel Data, Review of Economics and Statistics, 80, 549-560.
  33. Docquier F., ÖzdenÇ.,Peri G. (2010), The Wage Effects of Immigration and Emigration, NBER Working Paper No. 16646, December.
  34. Donadio P., Gabrielli G., Massari M. (2014), Uno come te. Europei e nuovi europei nei percorsi di integrazione, FrancoAngeli, Milan.
  35. Enchautegui M.E. (1993), The Effects of Immigration on the Wages and Employment of Black Males, The Urban Institute, Washington.
  36. Galbraith J.K. (1979), The Nature of Mass Poverty, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
  37. Panichella N. (2009), La mobilità territoriale dei laureati italiani: vincoli, strategie e opportunità, Polis, 23(2), 221-246.
  38. Hadri K. (2000), Testing for stationarity in heterogeneous panel data, The Econometrics Journal, 3(2), 148-161 Haller M. (2012), Identità e confini dell’Europa / Identität und GrenzenEuropas, “Annali di Sociologia / SoziologischesJahrbuch 18. 2010-2012”, Franco Angeli, Milan / Duncker&Humblot, Berlin, 2014, 454 Seiten.
  39. Harris J., Todaro M.P. (1970), Migration, Unemployment & Development: A Two-Sector Analysis, American Economic Review, March, 60(1), 126-42.
  40. Hernandez E., Coutin S.B. (2006), Remitting subjects: migrants, money and states, Economy and Society, 35(2), 185-208.
  41. Im K.S., Peseran M.H., Shin Y. (2003), Testing for Unit Roots in Heterogeneous Panels, Journal of Econometrics, 115, 53-74.
  42. Jauer J., Liebig T., Martin J.P., Puhani P. (2014), Migration as an adjustment mechanism in the crisis? A comparison of Europe and the United States, OECD Social, Employment And Migration Working Paper No. 155, OECD Publishing, Paris.
  43. Johnson G.E. (1971), The Structure of Rural-Urban Migration Models, Eastern Africa Economic Review, 3(1), 21-28.
  44. Kahanec M., Zimmermann K.F. (2008), International Migration, Ethnicity and Economic Inequality, Discussion Paper IZA DP No. 3450, April.
  45. Kahanec M., Zimmermann K.F. (2009), International Migration, Ethnicity and Economic Inequality, in Salverda W., Nolan B., Smeeding T.M. (eds.), 455-490, The Oxford Handbook of Economic Inequality, Oxford University Press, Oxford (2009).
  46. Laganà F., Violante A. (2011), Rocco e i suoi eredi: permanenza e mutamento nelle migrazioni Sud-Nord, Sociologia del Lavoro, 121, 30-50.
  47. Levin A., Lin C., Chu C.-J. (2002), Unit Root Tests in Panel Data: Asymptotic and Finite-sample Properties, Journal of Econometrics, 108, 1-24.
  48. Lipton M. (1980), Migration from rural areas of poor countries: the impact on rural productivity and income distribution, World Development, 8, 1-24.
  49. Livi Bacci M. (2008), Migrazioni e disuguaglianze: un intreccio complesso, Italiani Europei, 4, Livi Bacci M. (2010), In cammino. Breve storia delle migrazioni, Il Mulino, Bologna.
  50. Lo Cicero M. (2010), Il Rapporto Svimez 2010 sull’economia del Mezzogiorno, cronache meridionali del ventunesimo secolo, Economia Italiana, 2
  51. Lysandrou P. (2011), Global inequality as one of the root causes of the financial crisis: a suggested explanation, Economy and Society, 40(3), 323-344.
  52. Maddala G.S., Wu S. (1999), A Comparative Study of Unit Root Tests with Panel Data and A New Simple Test,Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 61, 631-652.
  53. Marone F. (2014), Seconde generazioni crescono: modelli pedagogici, pratiche per l’inclusione e costruzioni identitarie, in Donadio P., Gabrielli G., Massari M.
  54. (2014), Uno come te. Europei e nuovi europei nei percorsi di integrazione, FrancoAngeli, Milan, 131-154.
  55. Nijkamp P., Poot J., Sahin M. (2012), Migration Impact Assessment: New Horizons, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham. OECD (2006), International Migration Outlook. Sopemi 2006 Edition, Part III –International Migrant Remittances and their Role in Development, 167-199.
  56. OECD (2011), Divided We Stand: Why Inequality Keeps Rising, OECD Publishing, Paris.
  57. OECD (2014a), Rising Inequality: Youth and Poor Fall Further Behind ‒ Income Inequality Update, OECD Publishing, Paris.
  58. OECD (2014b), Focus on Top Incomes and Taxation in OECD Countries: Was the Crisis a Game Changer?, OECD Publishing, Paris.
  59. OECD (2014c), Focus on Inequality and Growth, OECD Publishing, Paris.
  60. Panichella N. (2012), Le migrazioni interne nel secolo scorso: vecchie e nuove migrazioni a confronto, Stato e Mercato, 95(2), 255-281.
  61. Panichella N. (2013), Migration strategies and occupational outcomes of southern Italian graduates, Journal of Modern Italian Studies, 18(1), 72-89.
  62. Panichella N. (2014), Meridionali al Nord. Migrazioni interne e società italiana dal dopoguerra ad oggi, Il Mulino, Bologna.
  63. Pesaran M.H. (2004), General Diagnostic Tests for Cross Section Dependence in Panels, Working Papers No. 435, University of Cambridge, Faculty of Economics.
  64. Pica F. (1972), Problemi di equità e di benessere nella finanza locale, Rassegna Economica, 5, 1315-1335.
  65. Piketty T. (2013), Le capital au XXIe siècle, Edition du Seuil, Paris XIV
  66. Pugliese E. (2002), L’Italia tra migrazioni internazionali e migrazioni interne, Il Mulino, Bologna.
  67. Ratha D. (2013), The impact of remittances on economic growth and poverty reduction, Technical report, Ed. Migration Policy Institute, Washington DC
  68. Salverda W., Nolan B., Smeeding T.M. (2009), Oxford Handbook on Economic Inequality, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  69. Stark O., Taylor J.E., Yitzhaki S. (1986), Remittances and Inequality, The Economic Journal, 96, 722-40.
  70. Stiglitz J.E. (1969), Rural-Urban Migration, Surplus Labour, and the Relationship between Urban and Rural Wages, East African Economic Review, December, 1(2), 1-27.
  71. Stiglitz J.E. (2012), The Price of Inequality. How Today’s Divided Society Endangers Our Futures, W.W. Norton, New York.
  72. Strozza S. (2009), Le seconde generazioni: il punto della situazione in Italia, in Casacchia O., Natale L., Guarneri A. (2009), Tra i banchi di scuola. Alunni stranieri e italiani a Roma e nel Lazio, FrancoAngeli, Milan, 19-42.
  73. Svimez (2014), Rapporto sull’economia del Mezzogiorno, Il Mulino, Bologna.
  74. Taylor J.E. (1992), Remittances and inequality reconsidered: direct, indirect and intertemporal effects, Journal of Policy Modelling, 14, 187-208.
  75. Therborn G. (2013), The Killing Fields of Inequality, Polity Press, Cambridge, UK.
  76. Todaro M.P. (1968), An Analysis of Industrialization Employment and Unemployment in Less Developed Countries, Yale Economic Essays, 8(2), 331-402.
  77. Autumn. Todaro M.P. (1969), A Model of Labor Migration and Urban Unemployment in Less Developed Countries, American Economic Review, March, 138-148.
  78. Todaro M.P. (1971), Education and Rural-Urban Migration: Theoretical Constructs and Empirical Evidence from Kenya, paper presented at the Conference on “Urban Unemployment in Africa”, Institute for Development Studies, Sussex University, September.
  79. Villadsen K., Wahlberg A. (2015), The government of life: managing populations, health and scarcity, Economy and Society, 44(1), 1-17.
  80. Wooldridge J.M. (2002), Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data, The MIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA; London, England, UK).

Giorgio Liotti, Salvatore Villani, The equalising power of internal immigration and the desertification process of southern Italy in "STUDI ECONOMICI " 114/2014, pp 51-77, DOI: 10.3280/STE2014-114003