Le influenze culturali e istituzionali nel diversity management. Un confronto tra Italia, Francia, Svezia, Germania e Regno Unito

Author/s Alessandra Lazazzara
Publishing Year 2016 Issue 2015/2
Language Italian Pages 27 P. 74-100 File size 260 KB
DOI 10.3280/SO2015-002003
DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation click here

Below, you can see the article first page

If you want to buy this article in PDF format, you can do it, following the instructions to buy download credits

Article preview

FrancoAngeli is member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc (PILA), a not-for-profit association which run the CrossRef service enabling links to and from online scholarly content.

Through a critical review of the scientific literature and the analysis of Cranet data on the adoption of diversity management (DM) practices, this exploratory paper discusses cultural and institutional factors that influence the way in which DM practices are adopted and specific target groups are addressed in five European countries (Italy, France, Sweden, Germany and UK). It emerged that three different drivers lead organizations to adopt DM practices in a specific way according to some contextual peculiarities. The first one is the legislative and regulatory pressure in terms of equality and equal opportunities. The countries showing a long tradition of legislation on equal opportunities interpret DM as a form of legal compliance and not as a management method. The same is also true for disability, where in most cases the DM’s actions towards this target group are exclusively intended to meet law obligations. The second driver is connected to demographic change and cultural influences. In particular, despite having a very divergent economic and employment contexts, Italy and Germany are similar on some specific cultural dimensions (gender egalitarianism and power distance) and are both oriented towards managing gender issues and younger workers at the expense of older workers. The third driver is related to the lack of knowledge and skills in the local labor market that brings companies to attract skilled labor force from abroad and to retrain low-skilled workers.

Keywords: Diversity, diversity management, culture, institutionalism, Europe, Cranet

  1. Ashforth, B.E., Mael, F. (1989), “Social Identity Theory and the Organization”, The Academy of Management Review, 14(1): 20-39.
  2. Bombelli, M.C. (2000), Soffitto di vetro e dintorni. Il management al femminile, Milano, Etas.
  3. Bombelli, M.C., Lazazzara, A. (2014), “Superare il Diversity Management. Come alcune terapie rischiano di peggiorare le malattie organizzative”, Sociologia del Lavoro, 134: 169-188. DOI: 10.3280/SL2014-134011
  4. Brookes, M., Croucher, R., Fenton-O’Creevy, M., Gooderham, P. (2011), “Measuring competing explanations of human resource management practices through the Cranet survey: Cultural versus institutional explanations”, Human Resource Management Review, 21: 68-79. DOI: 10.1016/j.hrmr.2010.09.012
  5. Bruchhagen, V., Grieger, J., Koall, I., Meuser, M., Ortlieb, R., Sieben, B. (2010), “Social inequality, diversity and equal treatment at work: the German case”, in Klarsfeld, A. (Ed.), International Handbook on Diversity Management at Work: Country Perspectives on Diversity and Equal Treatment, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Publishing: 109-138.
  6. BTDC (2009), La gestione delle risorse umane in Italia. Risultati della ricerca internazionale Cranet 2009, Bicocca Training and Development Centre, Milano, Università di Milano Bicocca.
  7. Budhwar, P.S., Sparrow, P.R. (2002), “An integrative framework for understanding cross-national human resource management practices”, Human Resource Management Review, 12(3): 377-403. DOI: 10.1016/S1053-4822(02)00066-9
  8. Campbell, J.L. (2004), Institutional Change and Globalization, Princeton, Princeton University Press.
  9. Cox, T.H., Blake, S. (1991), “Managing cultural diversity: implications for organizational competitiveness”, Academy of Management Executive, 5(3): 45-56. DOI: 10.2307/4165021
  10. Cranet (2011), Cranet survey on comparative human resource management. International executive report 2011, Cranfield, UK.
  11. Dares (2011), La situation sur le marché du travail en 2008 des personnes ayant une reconnaissance administrative de leur handicap, Ministère du travail, Paris, France, N. 040.
  12. DiMaggio, P.J. (1983), “State expansion and organization fields”, in Hall, R.H., Quinn, R.E. (Eds.), Organization Theory and Public Policy, Beverly Hills, CA, Sage: 147-161.
  13. DiMaggio, P.J., Powell, W.W. (1983), “The iron cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields”, American Sociological Review, 48: 147-160.
  14. EUROSTAT (2012), Labour Force Survey.
  15. EUROSTAT (2013), Labour Force Survey.
  16. Farndale, E., Biron, M., Briscoe, D.M., Sumita, R. (2015), “A global perspective on diversity and inclusion in work organisations”, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 26(6): 677-687. DOI: 10.1080/09585192.2014.991511
  17. Gilbert, J.A., Stead, B.A., Ivancevich, J.M. (1999), “Diversity Management: A New Organizational Paradigm”, Journal of Business Ethics, 21: 61-76. DOI: 10.1023/A:1005907602028
  18. Gronhaug, K., Nordhaug, O. (1992), “International human resource management: An environmental approach”, International Journal of Human Resource Management, 3: 1-14. DOI: 10.1080/09585199200000127
  19. Guillemard, A.M. (2007), Prolonger la vie active face au vieillissement. Quels leviers d’action? Les enseignements de l’étranger, Lyon, Éditions Réseau ANACT.
  20. Hall, P., Soskice, D. (Eds.) (2001), Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Basis of Competitive Advantage, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
  21. Hammerman, A., Marangozov, R., Marvell, R., Prus, I., Lazazzara, A., Lopez, M.N., Bastien, A. (2015), La migration professionnelle et ses conséquences pour les pratiques RH, Panorama Series, N. 3303, Juillet, Paris, Entreprise & Personne.
  22. Hofstede, G. (1980), “Motivation, leadership, and organization: Do American theories apply abroad?”, Organizational Dynamics, 9(1): 42-63.
  23. Hofstede, G. (1983), “Dimensions of National Culture in Fifty Countries and Three Regions”, in Deregowski, J.B., Dziurawiec, S., Annios, R.C. (Eds.), Expiscations in Cross-Cultural Psychology, Lisse, Netherlands, Swets and Zeitlinger: 335-355.
  24. Hofstede, G. (1991), Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, London, McGraw-Hill.
  25. House, R.J., Hanges, P.J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P.W., Gupta, V. (2004), Culture, leadership, and organizations. The GLOBE study of 62 societies, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage.
  26. ISTAT (2011), L’Italia in 150 anni. Sommario di statistiche storiche 1861-2010, Roma, Istituto Nazionale di Statistica.
  27. ISTAT (2013), Annuario statistico Italiano 2013, Roma, Istituto Nazionale di Statistica.
  28. Jackson, S.E., Joshi, A., Erhardt, N.L. (2003), “Recent Research on Team and Organizational Diversity: SWOT Analysis and Implications”, Journal of Management, 29(6): 801-830. DOI: 10.1016/S0149-2063(03)00080-1
  29. Jackson, S.E., Schuler, R.S. (1995), “Understanding human resource management in the context of organizations and their environment”, Annual Review of Psychology, 46: 237-264. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.ps.46.020195.001321
  30. Kalonaityte, V., Prasad, P., Tedros, A. (2010), “A Possible Brain Drain: Workplace Diversity and Equal Treatment in Sweden”, in Klarsfeld, A. (Ed.), International Handbook on Diversity Management at Work: Country Perspectives on Diversity and Equal Treatment, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Publishing: 244-263.
  31. Klarsfeld, A. (2010), International Handbook On Diversity Management At Work, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Publishing.
  32. Klarsfeld, A., Combs, G.M., Susaeta, L., Belizon, M.J. (2012), “International perspectives on diversity and equal treatment policies and practices”, in Brewster, C. Mayrhofer, M. (Eds.), Handbook of research on comparative human resource management, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Publishing: 393-415.
  33. Kossek E.E., Lobel, S.A., Brown, A.J. (2005), “Human Resource Strategies to Manage Workforce Diversity”, in Konrad A.M., Prasad P., Pringle J.M., (Eds.), Handbook of Workplace Diversity, CA, Sage.
  34. Lazazzara, A., Bombelli, M.C. (2011), “HRM Practices for an Ageing Italian Workforce: The Role of Training”, Journal of European Industrial Training, 35: 808-825. DOI: 10.1108/03090591111168339
  35. Lazazzara, A., Karpinska, K., Henkens, K. (2013), “What factors influence training opportunities for older workers? Three factorial surveys exploring the attitudes of HR professionals”, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(11): 2154-2172. DOI: 10.1080/09585192.2012.725077
  36. Litvin, D.R. (1997), “The Discourse of Diversity: form Biology to Management”, Organization, 4(2): 187-210. DOI: 10.1177/135050849742003
  37. Lucy, D., Broughton, A., Lazazzara, A., Stettes, O., Le Boulaire, M., Tran, X. (2012), Managing Extended Working Life. Panorama Series, N. 303, June, Paris, Entreprise & Personnel.
  38. McGrath, J.E., Berdahl, J.L., Arrow, H. (1995), “Traits, expectations, culture, and clout: The dynamics of diversity in work groups”, in Jackson, S., Ruderman, M. (Eds.), Diversity in work teams: Research paradigms for a changing workplace, Washington, DC, US, American Psychological Association. DOI: 10.1037/10189-001
  39. OECD (2008), A Profile of Immigrant Populations in the 21st Century, Paris, OECD.
  40. OECD (2010), Labour market statistics: Labour force statistics by sex and age: indicators, Paris, OECD Employment and Labour Market Statistics (database).
  41. OECD (2014), Is migration really increasing? Migration Policy Report.
  42. Pfeffer, J. (1981), “Some Consequences of Organizational Demography: Potential Impact of an Aging Work Force on Formal Organization”, in Kiesler, S. B., Morgan, J.N., Oppenheimer, V.K. (Eds.), Aging: Social Change, New York, Academic Press: 291-329.
  43. Pfeffer, J. (1983), “Organizational Demography”, in Cummings, L.L., Barry, M. S. (Eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior, Greenwich, CT, JAI Press, 5: 299-357.
  44. Powell, W.W., Di Maggio, P.J. (Eds.) (1991), The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis, Chicago, IL, University of Chicago Press.
  45. Rosenzweig, P. (1998), “Managing the new global workforce: fostering diversity, fostering consistency”, European Management Journal, 16(6): 644-652. DOI: 10.1016/S0263-2373(98)00041-3
  46. Schwartz, S.H. (1994), “Are there universal aspects in the content and structure of values?”, Journal of Social Issues, 50: 19-45. DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-4560.1994.tb01196.x
  47. Shen, J., Chanda, A., D’Netto, B., Monga, M. (2009), “Managing diversity through human resource management: an international perspective and conceptual framework”, The International Journal of Human Resource management, 20(2): 231-251. DOI: 10.1080/09585190802670516
  48. SOU (2007), Kön, makt och statistik, n. 108, Stockholm.
  49. Tajfel, H., Turner, J.C. (1986), “The social identity theory of intergroup behavior”, in Worchel, S., Austin, W.G. (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations, Chicago, Nelson-Hall.
  50. That, A. (2010), “Discourse and practices of diversity management in the UK”, in Klarsfeld, A. (Ed.), International Handbook on Diversity Management at Work: Country Perspectives on Diversity and Equal Treatment, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Publishing: 283-303.
  51. Thomas, R. (1996), Redefining Diversity, New York, Amacom.
  52. Trompenaars, F., Hampden-Turner, C. (1993), Riding the waves of culture, London, Brealey.
  53. Tsui, A.S., Gutek, B.A. (1999), Demographic differences in organizations: Current research and future directions, Lanham, MD, Lexington Books.
  54. Williams, K., O’Reilly, C. (1998), “Demography and diversity in organizations: A review of 40 years of research”, Res. Organ. Behav, 20: 77-140.

  • Rewind. "Ci vorranno 51 anni in più". Pandemia, assetti organizzativi e lavoro femminile Giulia Maria Cavaletto, in MONDI MIGRANTI 2/2023 pp.39
    DOI: 10.3280/MM2023-002003
  • Rethinking Work: Pathways and Practices in Business and Society. Introduction to the Special Issue. Luigi Moschera, Mario Pezzillo Iacono, Giovanna Lo Nigro, Laura Lucia Parolin, in STUDI ORGANIZZATIVI 2/2019 pp.9
    DOI: 10.3280/SO2018-002001
  • The Role of Solidarity in Diversity Management Practices: A Challenge for Social Innovation in Organisations Davide Bizjak, Guglielmo Faldetta, Luigi Maria Sicca, in STUDI ORGANIZZATIVI 2/2019 pp.130
    DOI: 10.3280/SO2018-002006

Alessandra Lazazzara, Le influenze culturali e istituzionali nel diversity management. Un confronto tra Italia, Francia, Svezia, Germania e Regno Unito in "STUDI ORGANIZZATIVI " 2/2015, pp 74-100, DOI: 10.3280/SO2015-002003