Motherhood in women with Multiple Sclerosis. An explorative research about the possible dimensions of well-being even in the illness

Author/s Maria Carlino, Giorgia Margherita
Publishing Year 2016 Issue 2016/3 Language Italian
Pages 21 P. 5-25 File size 315 KB
DOI 10.3280/PDS2016-003001
DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation click here

Below, you can see the article first page

If you want to buy this article in PDF format, you can do it, following the instructions to buy download credits

Article preview

FrancoAngeli is member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc (PILA), a not-for-profit association which run the CrossRef service enabling links to and from online scholarly content.

To women with Multiple Sclerosis motherhood is an extremely complicated stage. The aim of this paper is to explore the meanings that motherhood and illness assume for these women starting from the idea that the representational aspects might influence orientation, projects and choices. Methods. 20 women with MS were involved and interviewed by a semi-structured interview. The texts of the interviews were analyzed with a cluster analysis implemented by the software T-Lab (Lancia, 2004). Results. From the cluster analysis four thematic clusters emerged, named: the pain of everyday life, dependence from the medical area, close the circle and family role. These results were interpreted on the factorial axis where they organized three vectors of sense representative of the dynamics: from the concrete field to the abstract one, from the project to the spillover effects, from supporting Service to the family support, which highlight representational space where it is difficult to keep together illness and motherhood. Conclusions. We observed how some dimensions (as being a couple or a diagnosis known from longer time) might represent supporting factors to choose a project of motherhood. Some thoughts about the need to design interventions in to the HealthCare Services, that could integrate psychological aspects in usual therapeutic paths, emerge.

Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis, motherhood, representations

  1. Agostini F., Neri E., Salvatori P., Dellabartola S., Bozicevic L. and Monti F. (2015). Antenatal depressive symptoms associated with specific life events and sources of social support among italian women. Matern Child Health Journal, 19: 1131-1141. DOI: 10.1007/s10995-014-1613-
  2. Albrecht P., Fischer D. and Moser A. (2010). Multiple sclerosis and pregnancy: what does the patient think? A questionnaire study. BMC Research Notes, 3(1): 91. DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-3-9
  3. Alwan S., Yee I.M., Dybalski M., Guimond C., Dwosh E., Greenwood T.M., Butler R. and Sadovnick A.D. (2012). Reproductive decision making after the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 0(0): 1-8. DOI: 10.1177/135245851245292
  4. Ammaniti M. e Speranza A.M. (1996). Maternità e gravidanza: Studio delle rappresentazioni materne [Motherhood and pregnancy: Study on the maternal representations]. Milano: Cortina.
  5. Ammaniti M., Tambelli R. and Odorisio F. (2013). Exploring Maternal Representations During Pregnancy in Normal and At‐Risk Samples: The Use of the Interview of Maternal Representations During Pregnancy. Infant Mental Health Journal, 34(1): 1-10. DOI: 10.1002/imhj.2135
  6. Grue L. and Lærum K.T. (2002). ‘Doing Motherhood’: some experiences of mothers with physical disabilities. Disability & Society, 17(6): 671-683. DOI: 10.1080/096875902200001044
  7. Benedict R.H., Wahlig E., Bakshi R., Fishman I., Munschauer F., Zivadinov R. and Weinstock-Guttman B. (2005). Predicting quality of life in multiple sclerosis: accounting for physical disability, fatigue, cognition, mood disorder, personality, and behavior change. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 231(1): 29-34. DOI: 10.1016/j.jns.2004.12.00
  8. Benedict R.H., Weinstock-Guttman B., Fishman I., Sharma J., Tjoa C.W. and Bakshi R. (2004). Prediction of neuropsychological impairment in multiple sclerosis: comparison of conventional magnetic resonance imaging measures of atrophy and lesion burden. Archives of Neurology, 61(2): 226-230. DOI: 10.1001/archneur.61.2.22
  9. Bibring G.L., Dwyer T.F., Huntington D.S. and Valenstein A.F. (1961). A study of the psychological processes in pregnancy and of the earliest mother-child relationship. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, Vol. 16, 1961, 9-72.
  10. Birk K.A. and Kalb R. (1992). MS and planning a family: Fertility, pregnancy, childbirth, and parenting roles. In: Kalb R., Scheinberg L. (Eds.), Mult scler fam. New York: Demos, pp. 51-62.
  11. Bydlowski M. (2000). Je rêve un enfant. L’espérience intérièure de la maternité [Dreaming a child: The inner experience of motherhood]. Paris: Odile Jacob (trad. it. Sognare un figlio. L’esperienza interiore di maternità. Bologna: Pendragon, 2004).
  12. Bydlowski M. (2011). Psiche trasparente in gravidanza [Transparent psyche in pregnancy]. In: Casalini Farinet M., a cura di, Nascere. Le parole per dirlo. Un percorso umanistico e scientifico [Coming to the world. The words to be said it. A humanistic and scientific path]. Milano: Franco Angeli.
  13. Borisow N., Döring A., Pfueller C.F., Paul F., Dörr J. and Hellwig K. (2012). Expert recommendations to personalization of medical approaches in treatment of multiple sclerosis: an overview of family planning and pregnancy. EPMA J, 3(1): 3-9.
  14. Bouchard G., Boudreau J. and Hébert R. (2006). Transition to parenthood and conjugal life comparisons between planned and unplanned pregnancies. Journal of Family Issues, 27(11): 1512-1531. DOI: 10.1177/0192513X0629085
  15. Bove R., Alwan S., Friedman J.M., Hellwig K., Houtchens M., Koren G. and Sadovnick A.D. (2014). Management of multiple sclerosis during pregnancy and the reproductive years: a systematic review. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 124(6): 1157-1168.
  16. Calandri E., Graziano F., Borghi M. e Bonino S. (2016). Depressione e benessere psicologico in persone con sclerosi multipla: il ruolo dell’identità, del senso di coerenza e dell’autoefficacia [Depression and psychological well-being in people with multiple sclerosis: The role of identity, sense of coherence and self-efficacy]. Psicologia della Salute, 1: 49-66. DOI: 10.3280/PDS2016-001007
  17. Carli R. e Paniccia M.R. (1999). Analisi della domanda. Teoria e tecnica dell’intervento in psicologia clinica [Analysis of the demand: Theory and technique of intervention in clinical psychology]. Bologna: Il Mulino.
  18. Carlino M. (2015). SIM. Scelgo Io la Maternità. Ricerca-intervento sugli aspetti psicologici della maternità di donne con diagnosi di Sclerosi Multipla in un servizio ospedaliero [SIM. It’s up to me the maternity choice. A research-intervention about the psychological aspects of the motherhood of women with a Multiple Sclerosis diagnosis in a health care service] (Tesi di Dottorato) (Doctoral Thesis). Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II. Disponibile in:
  19. Carlino M., Margherita G., Chiodi A., Lanzillo R., Piscopo K., Rosa L., Satelliti B., Brescia Morra V. e Valerio P. (2015). L’attenzione alle donne nei servizi psicologici offerti dal Centro regionale sclerosi multipla “Federico II” di Napoli: l’esperienza del progetto SIM [The attention to women in the psychological services offered from the Regional Centre SM ‘Federico II’ of Naples: the experience of the SIM project]. In: Di Nuovo S., a cura di, Psicologia della salute e salute della psicologia [Psychology of the health and health psychology]. Atti del XI Congresso Nazionale della SIPSA. Roma: Bonanno Editore.
  20. Carlino M., Di Toppa U., Policelli S., Chiodi A. e Margherita G. (2015). Psychological function in the relationship between hospital and community: A research intervention about Multiple Sclerosis and generativity. Rivista di Psicologia Clinica, 2: 44-60.
  21. Carvalho A., Veiga A., Morgado J., Tojal R., Rocha S., Vale J. and Timóteo A. (2014). Esclerosis múltiple y decisión de la maternidad: estudio observacional en pacientes portuguesas [Multiple Sclerosis and the choice of motherhood: an observational study on portuguese patients]. Rev Neurol, 59(12): 537-542.
  22. Cavalla P., Rovei V., Masera S., Vercellino M., Massobrio M., Mutani R. and Revelli A. (2006). Fertility in patients with multiple sclerosis: current knowledge and future perspectives. Neurological Sciences, 27(4): 231-239. DOI: 10.1007/s10072-006-0676-
  23. Compare A., Mason B. e Molinari E. (2007). Il vissuto di malattia: contesto, relazioni, significati [The experience of illness: context, relationships, meaning]. In: Molinari E., Parati G. e Compare A., a cura di, Mente e cuore [Mind and heart]. Milano: Springer.
  24. Confavreux C., Aimard G. and Devic M. (1980). Course and prognosis of multiple sclerosis assessed by the computerized data processing of 349 patients. Brain, 103(2): 281-300. DOI: 10.1093/brain/103.2.28
  25. DeLuca J., Chelune G.J., Tulsky D.S., Lengenfelder J. and Chiaravalloti N.D. (2004). Is speed of processing or working memory the primary information processing deficit in multiple sclerosis? Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 26(4): 550-562. DOI: 10.1080/13803390490496641
  26. De Pascale I. (2013). Quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis: a pilot study. Journal of Psychopathology, 19: 126-133.
  27. Dupont S. (1996). Sexual function and ways of coping in patients with multiple sclerosis and their partners. Sexual and Marital Therapy, 11(4): 359-372. DOI: 10.1080/0267465960840445
  28. Engel G.L. (1977). The need for a new medical model: a challenge for biomedicine. Science, 196(4286): 129-136. DOI: 10.1126/science.84746
  29. Esposito G. and Freda M.F. (2015). Reflective and Agentive Functions of Narrative Writing: a Qualitative Study on the Narratives of University Students. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science. DOI: 10.1007/s1212
  30. Ferraro F. e Nunziante Cesàro A. (1985). Lo spazio cavo e il corpo saturato. La gravidanza come “agire” tra fusione e separazione [The hollow space and the satured body. The pregnancy as “acting” between fusion and separation]. Milano: Franco Angeli.
  31. Finkelsztejn A., Brooks J.B.B., Paschoal F.M. and Fragoso Y.D. (2011). What can we really tell women with multiple sclerosis regarding pregnancy? A systematic review and meta‐analysis of the literature. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 118(7): 790-797. DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2011.02931.
  32. Freda M.F. and Martino M.L. (2015). Health and Writing: Meaning-Making Processes in the Narratives of Parents of Children Whit Leukemia. Qualitative Health Research, 25(3): 348-359. DOI: 10.1177/104973231455105
  33. Gulick E.E. and Kim S. (2004). Postpartum emotional distress in mothers with multiple sclerosis. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, 33(6): 729-738. DOI: 10.1177/088421750427066
  34. Janssens A.C.J.W., Doorn P.A., Boer J.B., Meche F.G.A., Passchier J. and Hintzen R.Q. (2003). Impact of recently diagnosed multiple sclerosis on quality of life, anxiety, depression and distress of patients and partners. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 108(6): 389-395. DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0404.2003.00166.x
  35. Hellwig K. and Correale J. (2013). Artificial reproductive techniques in multiple sclerosis. Clinical Immunology, 149(2): 219-224.
  36. Hemmett L., Holmes J., Barnes M. and Russell N. (2004). What drives quality of life in multiple sclerosis? QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, 97(10): 671-676. DOI: 10.1093/qjmed/hch10
  37. Kurtzke J.F. (1983). Rating neurologic impairment in multiple sclerosis an expanded disability status scale (EDSS). Neurology, 33(11): 1444-1444.
  38. Lancia F. (2004). Strumenti per l’analisi dei testi. Introduzione all’uso di T-LAB [Tools for text analysis]. Milano: Franco Angeli.
  39. Landsman G. (2008). Reconstructing motherhood and disability in the age of perfect babies. London: Routledge.
  40. Landsman G. (2005). Mothers and models of disability. Journal of Medical Humanities, 26(2-3): 121-139.
  41. Langer-Gould A. and Beaber B.E. (2013). Effects of pregnancy and breastfeeding on the multiple sclerosis disease course. Clinical Immunology, 149(2), 244-250. DOI: 10.1016/j.clim.2013.01.00
  42. Laplaud D.A. and Confavreux C. (2006). Etiology of multiple sclerosis. La Revue du praticien, 56(12): 1306-1312.
  43. La Sala G.B., Fagandini P., Iori V., Monti F. and Blickstein I. (Eds.) (2006). Coming into the world: A dialogue between medical and human sciences. New York: De Gruyter.
  44. Leigh B. and Milgrom J. (2008). Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress. BMC psychiatry, 8(1): 24. DOI: 10.1186/1471-244X-8-2
  45. Margherita G., Carlino M. and Tessitore F. (in press). The generative functions of a Healthcare system: linking meanings between chronic illness and motherhood. In: Freda M.F. and De Luca Picione R. (Eds.) (in press), Healthcare and Culture: Subjectivity in medical contexts. Charlotte, NC: IAP Information Age Publishing
  46. Margherita G., Gargiulo A. and Martino M.L. (2015). Dream Narration in Healthy and At-Risk Pregnancy. Dreaming, 25(2): 88-102. DOI: 10.1037/a003888
  47. Margherita G., Martino M.L., Recano F. and Camera F. (2014). Invented fairy tales in groups with onco-haematological children. Child: Care, Health and Development, 40: 426-434. DOI: 10.1111/cch.1207
  48. Margherita G., a cura di (2013). Anoressie Contemporanee. Dal digiuno ascetico al Blog Pro-ana [Contemporary anorexia. From the ascetic fast to the Pro-Ana Blog]. Milano: Franco Angeli.
  49. Martino M.L., Onorato R., D’Oriano V. and Freda M.F. (2013). Donne e tumore al seno: effetti del protocollo guidato di scrittura sui sintomi associati al disturbo post traumatico da stress [Women and breast tumor: effects of the guided writing protocol on the symptoms associated with the post-traumatic stress disorder]. Rivista di Psicologia della salute, 1: 125-137. DOI: 10.3280/PDS2013-00100
  50. Miller A. and Dishon S. (2005). Health-related quality of life in multiple sclerosis: psychometric analysis of inventories. Multiple Sclerosis, 11(4): 450-458. DOI: 10.1191/1352458505ms1169o
  51. Quattropani M.C. (2008). Neuropsicologia clinica della sclerosi multipla [Clinical neuropsychology of the Multiple Sclerosis]. Roma: Armando.
  52. Mohr D.C., Hart S.L., Julian L., Cox D. and Pelletier D. (2004). Association between stressful life events and exacerbation in multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis. Bmj, 328(7442): 731. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.38041.724421.5
  53. Molgora S., Saita E. e Fenaroli V. (2010). Genitorialità: dai fattori critici ai percorsi di transizione-I. Orientarsi nella ricerca [Parenting: from critical factors to the transition paths. Orient yourself in the reaserach]. Rivista di Psicologia Clinica, 2: 197-208.
  54. Moja E.A. e Vegni E. (2000). La visita medica centrata sul paziente [The medical examination patient centred], Milano: Raffaello Cortina.
  55. Molinari E., Compare A. e Parati G., a cura di (2007). Mente e cuore: Clinica psicologica della malattia cardiaca [Mind and heart. Psychological clinic of the cardiological illness]. Milano: Springer.
  56. Motl R.W. and Snook E.M. (2008). Physical activity, self-efficacy, and quality of life in multiple sclerosis. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 35(1): 111-115. DOI: 10.1007/s12160-007-9006-
  57. Oksenberg J.R., Baranzini S.E., Barcellos L.F. and Hauser S.L. (2001). Multiple sclerosis: genomic rewards. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 113(2): 171-184. DOI: 10.1016/S0165-5728(00)00444-
  58. Pakenham K.I. and Fleming M. (2011). Relations between acceptance of multiple sclerosis and positive and negative adjustments. Psychology & Health, 26(10): 1292-1309. DOI: 10.1080/08870446.2010.51783
  59. Pakpoor J., Disanto G., Lacey M.V., Hellwig K., Giovannoni G. and Ramagopalan S.V. (2012). Breastfeeding and multiple sclerosis relapses: a meta-analysis. Journal of Neurology, 259(10): 2246-2248. DOI: 10.1007/s00415-012-6553-
  60. Payne D. and McPherson K.M. (2010). Becoming mothers. Multiple sclerosis and motherhood: a qualitative study. Disability and Rehabilitation, 32(8): 629-638. DOI: 10.3109/0963828090320470
  61. Petrillo G., Caso D. e Capone V. (2014). Un’applicazione del Mental Health Continuum di Keyes al contesto italiano: benessere e malessere in giovani, adulti e anziani [An application of the Mental Health Continuum of Keyes at the italian context: well-being and discomfort in young people, adults and old man]. Psicologia della Salute, 2: 159-181. DOI: 10.3280/PDS2014-00201
  62.  Petrillo G. (2012). Qualità dei servizi, benessere psicosociale e salute organizzativa in ospedale [Quality of services, psychosocial well-being and organizational health in hospital]. Psicologia della Salute, 1(1): 9-14. DOI: 10.3280/PDS2012-001002
  63. Pittion-Vouyovitch S., Debouverie M., Guillemin F., Vandenberghe N., Anxionnat R. and Vespignani H. (2006). Fatigue in multiple sclerosis is related to disability, depression and quality of life. Journal of the neurological sciences, 243(1): 39-45. DOI: 10.1016/j.jns.2005.11.02
  64. Portaccio E., Ghezzi A., Hakiki B., Martinelli V., Moiola L., Patti F. and Amato M.P. (2011). Breastfeeding is not related to postpartum relapses in multiple sclerosis. Neurology, 77(2): 145-150.
  65. Prilleltensky O. (2003). A ramp to motherhood: the experiences of mothers with physical disabilities. Sexuality and Disability, 21(1): 21-47.
  66. Prunty M., Sharpe L., Butow P. and Fulcher G. (2008). The motherhood choice: themes arising in the decision-making process for women with multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis, 14(5): 701-704. DOI: 10.1177/135245850708610
  67. Putzki N., Fischer J., Gottwald K., Reifschneider G., Ries S., Siever A. and Hartung H.P. (2009). Quality of life in 1000 patients with early relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis. European Journal of Neurology, 16(6): 713-720. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2009.02572.
  68. Raphael-Leff J. (2010). ‘Mothers’ and ‘fathers’ orientations: patterns of pregnancy, parenting and the bonding process. In: Tyano S., Keren M., Herrman H. and Cox J. (Eds.), Parenthood and mental health. A bridge between infant and adult psychiatry. UK: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 9-22.
  69. Rastier F., Cavazza M. and Abeillé A. (2002). Semantics for descriptions: From linguistics to computer science, 138. Standford, CA: Standford Univ. Center for the Study.
  70. Reinert M. (1995). I mondi lessicali di un corpus di 304 racconti di incubi attraverso il metodo Alceste [Lexical worlds of a corpus of 304 stories of nightmares through the Alceste method]. In: Cipriani R. e Bolasco S., a cura di, Ricerca qualitativa e computer [Qualitative research and computer]. Milano: Franco Angeli, pp. 203-223.
  71. Robertson E., Grace S., Wallington T. and Stewart D.E. (2004). Antenatal risk factors for postpartum depression: a synthesis of recent literature. General Hospital Psychiatry, 26(4): 289-295. DOI: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2004.02.00
  72. Saita E., Molgora S. e Fenaroli V. (2011). Genitorialità: dai fattori critici ai percorsi di transizione-II. Una ricerca esplorativa [Parenting: from the critical factors to the transition paths-II. An explorative research]. Rivista di Psicologia Clinica, 2: 122-133.
  73. Salvatore S. and Venuleo C. (2009). The unconscious as symbol generator. In: Wagoner B. (Ed.), Symbolic Transformation: The Mind in Movement Through Culture and Society, London: Routledge, pp. 59-74.
  74. Siegert R.J. and Abernethy D.A. (2005). Depression in multiple sclerosis: a review. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 76(4): 469-475. DOI: 10.1136/jnnp.2004.05463
  75. Smeltzer S.C. (1994). The concerns of pregnant women with multiple sclerosis. Qualitative Health Research, 4(4): 480-502. DOI: 10.1177/10497323940040040
  76. Soifer R. (1985). Psicologia da gravidez, parto e puerpério [Psychology of the pregnancy, delivery and postpartum]. Porto Alegre: Artes Médicas (trad. it. Psicologia della gravidanza, parto e puerperio. Roma: Borla, 1986).
  77. Stern D.N. (1995). The motherhood constellation: A unified view of parent-infant psychotherapy. London: Karnac books (trad. it. La costellazione materna: il trattamento psicoterapeutico della coppia madre-bambino. Torino: Bollati Boringhieri, 1998).
  78. Stüve O. and Oksenberg J. (2010). Multiple Sclerosis Overview. In: Pagon R.A., Bird T.D., Dolan C.R., Stephens K. and Adam M.P. (Eds.). Gene Reviews. Seattle: University of Washington.
  79. Tambelli R., Odorisio F., Trentini C. e Ammaniti M. (2008). Le rappresentazioni materne prima e dopo la nascita del bambino, in condizioni a rischio e non a rischio: indicatori predittivi della relazione madre-bambino nel primo anno di vita [Maternal representations before and after the birth, of the child in at risk and at no risk conditions: predictive indicators of the mother-child relationship in the first year of life]. Rivista di Studi Familiari, 2: 115-133.
  80. Turchi G.P. e Della Torre C. (2007). Psicologia della salute. Dal modello bio-psico-sociale al modello dialogico [Health Psychology. From the bio-psycho-social model to the dialogical model]. Roma: Armando.
  81. Vitiello S. (2013). L’impatto della sclerosi multipla sulla famiglia [The impact of the Multiple Sclerosis on the family]. In: Bonino S., Aspetti psicologici nella sclerosi multipla [Psychological aspects in the Multiple Sclerosis]. Milano: Springer.
  82. Vukusic S., Hutchinson M., Hours M., Moreau T., Cortinovis‐Tourniaire P., Adeleine P. and Confavreux C. (2004). Pregnancy and multiple sclerosis (the PRIMS study): clinical predictors of post‐partum relapse. Brain, 127(6): 1353-1360. DOI: 10.1093/brain/awh15
  83. Westerhof G.J. and Keyes C.L. (2010). Mental illness and mental health: The two continua model across the lifespan. Journal of Adult Development, 17(2): 110-119. DOI: 10.1007/s10804-009-9082-
  84. Zaccagnini C. e Zavattini G.C. (2007). La genitorialità come “processo evolutivo’’. Una riflessione nella prospettiva della Teoria dell’Attaccamento [Parenting as “evolutive process’’. A reflection on the Attachment Theory perspective]. Psicologia Clinica dello Sviluppo, 2: 199-252.
  85. Zaccaro A. and Freda M.F. (2013). Making sense of risk diagnosis in case of prenatal and reproductive genetic counselling for neuromuscular diseases. Journal of Health Psychology, 19(3): 344-357. DOI: 10.1177/135910531247085

  • Teen mothers who are daughters of teen mothers: Psychological intergenerational dimensions of early motherhood Giorgia Margherita, Gina Troisi, Francesca Tessitore, Anna Gargiulo, in Children and Youth Services Review /2017 pp.294
    DOI: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2017.10.010
  • Female Nigerian asylum seekers in Italy: An exploration of gender identity dimensions through an interpretative phenomenological analysis Francesca Tessitore, Giorgia Margherita, in Health Care for Women International /2021 pp.165
    DOI: 10.1080/07399332.2019.1692849
  • Underfifty Women and Breast Cancer: Narrative Markers of Meaning-Making in Traumatic Experience Maria Luisa Martino, Daniela Lemmo, Anna Gargiulo, Daniela Barberio, Valentina Abate, Franca Avino, Raffaele Tortoriello, in Frontiers in Psychology 618/2019
    DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00618
  • Italian Validation of the Capacity to Love Inventory: Preliminary Results Giorgia Margherita, Anna Gargiulo, Gina Troisi, Francesca Tessitore, Nestor D. Kapusta, in Frontiers in Psychology 1434/2018
    DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01434

Maria Carlino, Giorgia Margherita, La maternità in donne con Sclerosi Multipla. Una ricerca esplorativa sulle possibili dimensioni di benessere nella malattia in "PSICOLOGIA DELLA SALUTE" 3/2016, pp 5-25, DOI: 10.3280/PDS2016-003001