Come attenuare il collegamento tra debolezza socio-economica ed esposizione epidemica al virus da Covid-19: un’analisi multidisciplinare

Author/s Andrea Marchioni, Filippo Damiani, Luca Bonacini
Publishing Year 2021 Issue 2021/2 Language English
Pages 16 P. 37-52 File size 188 KB
DOI 10.3280/RSF2021-002004
DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation click here

Below, you can see the article first page

If you want to buy this article in PDF format, you can do it, following the instructions to buy download credits

Article preview

FrancoAngeli is member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc (PILA), a not-for-profit association which run the CrossRef service enabling links to and from online scholarly content.

The Covid-19 pandemic crisis has caused, in addition to the serious effects on the health systems, a sharp slowdown in the Italian and European economy, mainly weighing on the weakest sections of the population with a worrying increase in economic and social inequalities. Using a multidisciplinary approach, this study focuses on the link between socio-economic fragility and epidemic exposure to Covid-19 in Italy and Europe, with a triple objective: to monitor the main dimensions of increased inequalities within the economy and society through an academic literature review; to empirically understand the reasons for national differences in the spread and lethality of the Covid-19 virus at European level; to provide, on the basis of the results obtained in pursuing the previous two objectives, a key to understanding the main public policies for a healthier, more inclusive and sustainable Italy and Europe.

Keywords: Covid-19, inequalities, public policies, development, inclusion.

  1. Chen S, Igan D, Pierri N, Presbitero AF. Tracking the economic impact of COVID-19 and mitigation policies in Europe and the United States. International Monetary Fund Working Paper 2020; 20/125.
  2. Fernandez N. Economic effects of coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19) on the world economy. IESE Business School Working Paper 2020; WP-1240-E.
  3. Maliszewska M, Mattoo A, van der Mensbrugghe D. The potential impact of COVID-19 on GDP and trade. A preliminary assessment. Policy Research Working Paper 2020; 9211.
  4. Bozorgmehr K, Saint V, Kaasch A, Stuckler D, Kentikelenis A. COVID and the convergence of three crises in Europe. The Lancet Public Health 2020; 5: 247-8. DOI: 10.1016/S2468-2667(20)30078-5
  5. Eurostat. Selected labour market indicators in Q3 2020. Published on 19 January 2021. --
  6. Eurostat. Unemployment rates in December 2020. Published on 1 February 2021. --
  7. Eurostat. Preliminary flash estimate for the fourth quarter of 2020. Published on 2 February 2021. -- Eurostat. Impact of COVID-19 on household consumption and savings. Published on 2 February 2021.
  8. Istat. Le prospettive per l’economia italiana nel 2020-2021. Published on 3 December 2020. --
  9. Istat. La seconda ondata Covid frena la ripresa dell’economia europea. Published on 22 December 2020. --
  10. Istat. Stima preliminare del PIL, IV trimestre 2020. Published on 2 February 2021. --
  11. Istat. Nota mensile sull’andamento dell’economia italiana, gennaio 2021. Published on 9 February 2021. -- Ahmed F, Ahmed N, Pissarides C, Stiglitz J. Why inequality could spread COVID-19. The Lancet Public Health 2020; 5: 240. DOI: 10.1016/S2468-2667(20)30085-2
  12. Galletta S, Giommoni T. The Effect of the 1918 influenza pandemic on income inequality: evidence from Italy. SSRN Working Paper 2020. --
  13. Grande E. Pandemia diseguale: la lezione americana. Micromega 2020; 6: 149-63.
  14. Mackenbach JP, Stirbu I, Roskam AJR, Schaap MM, Menvielle G, Leinsalu M et al. Socioeconomic inequalities in health in 22 European countries. The New England Journal of Medicine 2008; 358(23): 2468-81.
  15. Burström B, Tao W. Social determinants of health and inequalities in COVID-19. The European Journal of Public Health 2020; 30 (4): 617-8.
  16. Blaskó Z, Papadimitriou E, Manca AR. How will the COVID-19 crisis affect existing gender divides in Europe? Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union; 2020.
  17. Fortier N. COVID-19, gender inequality, and the responsibility of the state. International Journal of Wellbeing 2020; 10 (3): 77-93.
  18. Manzo LKC, Minello A. Mothers, childcare duties, and remote working under COVID-19 lockdown in Italy: cultivating communities of care. Dialogues in Human Geography 2020; 10 (2): 120-3. DOI: 10.1177/2043820620934268
  19. Inno L, Rotundi A, Piccialli A. COVID-19 lockdown effects on gender inequality. Nature Astronomy 2020; 4: 1114.
  20. Bertocchi G. COVID-19 susceptibility, women, and work. Published on on 23 April 2020. --
  21. Bonacini L, Gallo G, Scicchitano S. Will it be a shecession? The unintended influence of working from home on the gender wage gap related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Global Labor Organization Discussion Paper 2021; 771.
  22. Bertazzoni G, Ruggiero M, Bertazzoni B. Spatial inequalities of COVID-19 in Italy. Journal of Research and Didactics in Geography 2020; 1 (9): 207-12. DOI: 10.4458/3099
  23. Piscitelli P, Miani A, Mazza A, Triassi M, De Donno A, Scala A et al. Healthcare inequalities in Italy: challenges for the Government. The Lancet Public Health 2019; 4 (12): 605. DOI: 10.1016/S2468-2667(19)30229-4
  24. Bonacini L, Gallo G, Scicchitano S. All that glitters is not gold. Effects of working from home on income inequality at the time of COVID-19. Global Labor Organization Discussion Paper 2020; 541.
  25. Bonacini L, Gallo G, Scicchitano S. Working from home and income inequality: risks of a ‘new normal’ with COVID-19. Journal of Population Economics 2021; 34: 303-60. 2020; 111: 106424.
  26. Brunori P, Maitino ML, Ravagli L, Sciclone N. Distant and unequal. Lockdown and inequalities in Italy. DISEI Working Paper 2020; 13.
  27. Palomino JC, Rodríguez JG, Sebastian R. Wage inequality and poverty effects of lockdown and social distancing in Europe. European Economic Review 2020; 129: 103564.
  28. Williams CC, Kayaoglu A. COVID-19 and undeclared work: impacts and policy responses in Europe. The Service Industries Journal 2020; 40 (13-14): 914-31. DOI: 10.1080/02642069.2020.1757073
  29. Murat M, Bonacini L. Coronavirus pandemic, remote learning and education inequalities. Global Labor Organization Discussion Paper 2020; 679.
  30. Odendahl C, Springford J. Three ways COVID-19 will cause economic divergence in Europe. CER Policy Paper 2020. --
  31. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Data on 14-day notification rate of new COVID-19 cases and deaths. Published on 11 March 2021. --
  32. Shapley L. A value for n-person games. In: Kuhn HW, Tucker AW, ed.
  33. Contributions to the Theory of Games, Vol. 2. Princeton: Princeton University; 1953. p. 307-318.
  34. Deutsch J, Alperin MNP, Silber J. Using the Shapley decomposition to disentangle the impact of circumstances and efforts on health inequality. Social Indicators Research 2018; 138 (2): 523-543.
  35. Dong F, Yu B, Pan Y, Hua Y. What contributes to the regional inequality of haze pollution in China? Evidence from quantile regression and Shapley value decomposition. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 2020; 27: 17093-108.
  36. Zimmermann KF, Karabulut G, Huseyin Bilgin M, Cansin Doker A. Intercountry distancing, globalization and the coronavirus pandemic. The World Economy 2020; 43 (6): 1484-98.
  37. Bonacini L, Gallo G, Patriarca F. Identifying policy challenges of COVID-19 in hardly reliable data and judging the success of lockdown measures. Journal of Population Economics 2021; 34: 275-301.
  38. Leach M, MacGregor H, Scoones I, Wilkinson A. Post-pandemic transformations: how and why COVID-19 requires us to rethink development. World Development 2021; 138: 105233.
  39. Valsecchi M, Pierri M, Olster S, Banerjee D, Kutscher B, Sokolin L et al. Big ideas 2021: le 21 tendenze che segneranno i prossimi mesi. Published on LinkedIn on 9 December 2020. Available at, last consulted on 10 March 2021.
  40. European Commission. -- Recovery plan for Europe. Published in 2021., last consulted on 10 March 2021. European Commission. EU4Health 2021-2027 – a vision for a healthier European Union. -- Published in 2021., last consulted on 10 March 2021.
  41. United Nations. The 2030 agenda for sustainable development. Published in 2015. --, last consulted on 10 March 2021.
  42. European Commission. European green deal. -- Published in 2021., last consulted on 10 March 2021.
  43. European Commission. Recovery from coronavirus: success stories. Published in 2021., last consulted on 10 March 2021.
  44. Ministero dell'Economia e delle Finanze. The recovery and resilience plan: next generation Italia. Published in 2021., last consulted on 10 March 2021.
  45. Ministero per il Sud e la Coesione territoriale. Piano sud 2030. Sviluppo e coesione per l'Italia. Published in 2020. --, last consulted on 10 March 2021.
  46. Ferrannini A, Barbieri E, Biggeri M, Di Tommaso MR. Industrial policy for sustainable human development in the post-Covid19 era. World Development 2021; 137: 105215.
  47. De Las Heras A, Luque-Sendra A, Zamora-Polo F. Machine learning technologies for sustainability in smart cities in the post-COVID era. Sustainability 2020; 12 (22): 9320.
  48. Allam Z, Jones DS. Future (post-COVID) digital, smart and sustainable cities in the wake of 6G: digital twins, immersive realities and new urban economies. Land Use Policy 2021; 101: 105201.
  49. González-Sánchez G, Olmo-Sánchez MI, Maeso-González E. Challenges and strategies for post-COVID-19 gender equity and sustainable mobility. Sustainability 2021; 13 (5): 2510.

Andrea Marchioni, Filippo Damiani, Luca Bonacini, How to loosen the link between socio-economic weakness and epidemic exposure to Covid-19: A multidisciplinary analysis in "RIVISTA SPERIMENTALE DI FRENIATRIA" 2/2021, pp 37-52, DOI: 10.3280/RSF2021-002004