Additive manufacturing: what role for the "human capital"?

Author/s Roberto Santolamazza, Dejan Pejcic
Publishing Year 2016 Issue 2016/2 Language Italian
Pages 32 P. 113-144 File size 341 KB
DOI 10.3280/ES2016-002008
DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation click here

Below, you can see the article first page

If you want to buy this article in PDF format, you can do it, following the instructions to buy download credits

Article preview

FrancoAngeli is member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc (PILA), a not-for-profit association which run the CrossRef service enabling links to and from online scholarly content.

Additive manufacturing is emerging as a disruptive innovation technology. The characteristics of additive manufacturing allow the creation of flexible models and approach the idea of mass customization. To obtain maximum benefits from these technologies it is essential to have available properly educated "human capital", that is able to manage new machinery and new set of problems. It is important to analyze the possible impacts on the occupational sphere, due to an intensive use of additive technologies. It is not only about automation of some steps of productive process or the substitution of already obsolete processes. Business models based on 3D printing have their own characteristics and request focused consideration. This paper analyzes the relation between additive manufacturing and the labor market, with a particular attention to the competences requested to "human capital" and to the topic of innovation as instrument of creation or destruction of jobs.

Keywords: Additive Manufacturing, Employment, Human Capital, Technological Change

  1. Alpaydin E. (2010). Introduction to Machine Learning. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
  2. Anderson C. (2006). La coda lunga. Da un mercato di massa ad una massa di mercati. Torino: Codice Edizioni.
  3. Auricchio M., Cantamessa M., Colombelli A., Cullino R., Orame A. e Paolucci E. (2014). Gli incubatori d’impresa in Italia. Roma: Banca d’Italia.
  4. Autor D. (2015). Why Are There Still So Many Jobs? The History and Future of Workplace Automation. Journal of Economic Perspective, 29(3): 3-30, DOI: 10.1257/jep.29.3.3.BaurC.andWeeD.(2015).Manufacturing’sNextAct.McKinseyQuaterly,June<>
  5. Beltrametti L. e Gasparre A. (2014). La stampa 3D come nuova sfida tecnologica al lavoro manifatturiero. Presentato al XXVI Convegno annuale di Sinergie: Manifattura: quale futuro?. Università di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale 13-14 novembre. In: Referred Electronic Conference Proceeding, DOI: 10.7433/SRECP.2014.12
  6. Berthon P.R., Pitt L.F., McCarthy I. and Kates S.M. (2007). When Customers get Clever: Managerial Approaches to Dealing with Creative Customers. Business Horizon, 50: 39-47, DOI: 10.1016/j.bushor.2006.05.005
  7. Bertschek I., Cerquera D. and Klein G.J. (2013). More Bits - More Bucks? Measuring the Impact of Broadband Internet on Firm Performance, Dice – (Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics) Discussion Paper n. 86. University of Düsseldorf, <http://econpapers.repec. org/paper/zbwdicedp/86.htm>.
  8. Bettiol M., Finotto V., Di Maria E. and Micelli S. (2014). The Hidden Side of Innovation: Why Tinkerers Matter. Ca’ Foscari University of Venice Department of Management, WP, 8: 1-29.
  9. Bianchi M. and Åhlström P. (2014). Additive manufacturing: towards a new operations management paradigm?. Presented at Production and Operations Management Society, 25th Annual Conference, Atlanta, Usa, 9-12 May.
  10. Blikstein P. (2013). Digital Fabrication and ‘Making’ in Education: The Democratization of Invention. In: Walter-Herrmann J. and Büching C., eds. FabLabs: Of Machines, Makers and Inventors. Bielefeld: Transcript Publishers.
  11. Bogliacino F. and Vivarelli M. (2012). The job creation effect of R&D expenditures. Australian Economic Papers, 51(2): 96-113, DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8454.2012.00425.x
  12. Borah A. and Tellis G.J. (2014). Make, Buy, or Ally? Choice of and Payoff from Announcements of Alternate Strategies for Innovations. Marketing Science, 33: 114-133, DOI: 10.1287/mksc.2013.0818
  13. Boschetti C., Grandi A. e Grimaldi R. (2011). Risorse, competenze e incubatori d’impresa. Sinergie, 61-62(3): 327-349, DOI: 10.7433/S6162.2003.16
  14. Brynjolfsson E. and McAfee A. (2012). Race Against the Machine: How the Digital Revolution is Accelerating Innovation, Driving Productivity, and Irreversibly Transforming Employment and the Economy.
  15. Lexington Digital Frontier Press. Brynjolfsson E. and McAfee A. (2014). The Second Machine Age. Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
  16. Campbell D. e Hulme R. (2001). The winner-takes-all economy. The McKinsey Quarterly, 1.
  17. Cavallone M. (2003). Oltre la fidelizzazione. Il marketing nell'era della complessità. Milano: Franco Angeli.
  18. Ciriaci D., Moncada P. and Voigt P. (2015). Innovation and Job Creation: a Sustainable Relation?. Eurasian Business Review, 10, DOI: 10.1007/s40821-015-0031-3
  19. Cohen D., Sargeant M. and Somers K. (2014). 3-D printing takes shape. McKinsey Quaterly, January <http://www.mck kes-shape>.
  20. Crandall R., Lehr W. and Litan R. (2007). The Effects of Broadband Deployment on Output and Employment: A Cross-sectional Analysis of U.S. Data. Economic Policy, Brookings Institution - Washington, 6, July, < pdf>.
  21. Czernich N., Falck O., Kretschmer T. and Woessmann L. (2009). Broadband Infrastructure and Economic Growth. CESifo WP, n. 2861.
  22. Davis S.M. (1987). Future Perfect. Boston: Addison-Wesley Publishing. Evangelista R. and Vezzani A. (2011). The impact of technological and Organizational Innovations on employment in European Firms. Industrial and Corporate Change, 21(4): 871-899, DOI: 10.1093/icc/dtr069
  23. Eyers D.R., Potter A.T., Gosling J. and Naim M.M. (2012). The flexibility of Additive Manufacturing Systems. Presented at 4th World Conference on Production and Operations Management (P&OM World Conference), Amsterdam, 1-4 July, < fauthors/A042602H.html>.
  24. Faraldi A., Tardito M. and Vos M. (2011). Fattore internet: come internet sta trasformando l’economia italiana. Technical report. Milano: The Boston Consulting Group, <>.
  25. Fondazione Nord-Est e Prometeia (a cura di) (2015). Make in Italy. Il primo rapporto sull’impatto delle tecnologie digitali nel sistema manifatturiero italiano. Fondazione Make in Italy CDB, <>. Frey C.B. and Osborne M.A. (2013). The future of employment. How susceptible are jobs to computerization?. Oxford Martin School, <>.
  26. Goldin C. and Katz L.F. (2009). The Race between Education and Technology: The Evolution of U.S. Educational Wage Differentials, 1890 to 2005. Harvard University and National Bureau of Economic Research, WP.
  27. Goos M., Manning A. and Salomons A. (2014). Explaining Job Polarization: Routine-Biased Technological Change and Offshoring. American Economic Review, 104(8): 2509-2526, DOI: 10.1257/aer.104.8.2509
  28. Griffin M. (2013). Skill Builder, Finishing and Post-Processing Your 3D Printed Objects. Make: magazine, 34, < projects/make-34/skill-builder-finishing-and-post-processing-your-3dprinted-objects/>.
  29. Grilo A. and Santos J. (2015). Measuring Efficiency and Productivity Growth of New Technology-Based Firms in Business Incubators: The Portuguese Case Study of Madan Parque. The Scientific World Journal, DOI: 10.1155/2015/936252
  30. Gruber H., Hätönen, J. and Koutroumpis P. (2013). Broadband Access in the EU: An Assessment of Future Economic Benefits. Presented at 24th European Regional Conference of the International Telecommunication Society, Florence, Italy, 20-23 October, <>.
  31. Hague R., Reeves P. and Jones S. (2016). Mapping UK Research and Innovation in Additive manufacturing. Report by Innovate UK, Epsrc (Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Additive Manufacturing) and by Stratasys Strategic Consulting.
  32. Harrison R., Jaumandreu J., Mairesse, J. and Peters B. (2014). Does innovation stimulate employment? A firm-level analysis using comparable micro-data from four European countries. International Journal of Industrial Organization, 35: 29-43, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijindorg.2014.06.001
  33. Idc (2016). China to Overtake US 3D Printer Shipments in 2016. 5 January, <>.
  34. Jorgenson D.W. (2001). Information Technology and U.S. Economy. The American Economic Review, 91(1): 1-32, DOI: 10.1257/aer.91.1.1
  35. Katz L.F. and Margo R.A. (2013). Technical Change and the Relative Demand for Skilled Labor: The United States in Historical Perspective. National Bureau of Economic Research, WP n. 18752. Now chapter in: Boustan L.P., Frydman C., and Margo R.A., eds. (2014). Human Capital in History: The American Record. Chicago: University of Chicago Press: 15-57.
  36. Kianian B., Tavassoli S. and Larsson T. C. (2015). The role of additive manufacturing technology in job creation. An exploratory case study of suppliers of additive manufacturing in Sweden. 12th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing. ScienceDirect, 26: 93-98, DOI: 10.1016/j.procir.2014.07.109
  37. Krassenstein B. (2015). Chinese Government to Put 3D Printers in All 400,000 Elementary Schools by Next Year. The Voice of 3D Printing Technologies, 8 Avril, <>.
  38. Kruth J.P., Leu M.C. and Nakagawa T. (1998). Progress in Additive Manufacturing and Rapid Prototyping. CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology, 47(2): 525-540, DOI: 10.1016/S0007-8506(07)63240-5
  39. Lanier J. (2014). La dignità ai tempi di Internet: per un’economia digitale equa. Milano: il Saggiatore.
  40. Lehr W., Osorio C., Gillet S. e Sirbu M. (2005). Measuring Broadband’s Economic Impact. Broadband Properties, 12: 12-24.
  41. Lipson H. and Kurman M. (2013). Fabricated. The new world of 3D printing. Indianapolis: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
  42. Mack E. and Faggian A. (2013). Productivity and Broadband: The Human Factor. International Regional Science Review, 36(3): 392-423, DOI: 10.1177/0160017612471191
  43. Micelli S. (2011). Futuro artigiano. L’innovazione nelle mani degli italiani. Venezia: Marsilio.
  44. Mitchell M.T., Hu S.J. and Yue W. (2014). Mass customization. In: Laperrière L. and Reanhart G., The International Academy for Production Engineering, eds. CIRP Encyclopedia of Production Engineering: 836-843.
  45. Mudambi R. (2008). Location, control and innovation in knowledgeintensive industries. Journal of Economic Geography, 8: 699-725, DOI: 10.1093/jeg/lbn024
  46. Murr L.E., Gaytan S.M., Ramirez D.A., Martinez E., Hernandez J., Amato K.N., Shindo P.W., Medina F.R. and Wicker R.B. (2012). Metal Fabrication by Additive Manufacturing Using Laser and Electron Beam Melting Technologies. Journal of Materials Science and Technology, 28: 1-14, DOI: 10.1016/S1005-0302(12)60016-4
  47. Oecd (2001). The Well-being of Nations. The role of human and social capital. Education and Skills. Paris. Petrick I.J. and Simpson T.W. (2013). 3D printing disrupts manufacturing. Research-Technology Management, 56(6): 12-16, DOI: 10.5437/08956308X5606193
  48. Rayna T. and Striukova L. (2016). From rapid prototyping to home fabrication: How 3D printing is changing business model innovation. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 102: 214-224, DOI: 10.1016/j.techfore.2015.07.023
  49. Reid A. and Miedzinski M. (2014). A smart specialization platform for advanced manufacturing. European Commission, Directorate General for Regional and Urban Policy, Paper. Technopolis Group.
  50. Ries E. (2011). The Lean Startup: How Today's Entrepreneurs Use Continuous Innovation to Create Radically Successful Businesses. New York: Crown Business.
  51. Rotman D. (2013). How technology is destroying jobs. Technology Review, 16(4): 28-35.
  52. Rullani E. (2008). Economia della conoscenza e capitale sociale. Alla ricerca di una nuova modernità. Quaderni di Ricerca sull’Artigianato, 97-134.
  53. Rullani E. (2014). Conoscenza generativa e conoscenza codificata nelle filiere globali. Una sfida per il made in Italy. Economia e società regionale, XXXII(2): 9-30, DOI: 10.3280/ES2014-002002
  54. Soatento D.P. and Jack S.L. (2013). Business incubators and the network of technology-based firms. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 38(4): 432-453, DOI: 10.1007/s1096101192374
  55. Taylor W.T. (1911). The principles of scientific management. Trad. It. (1967). L’organizzazione scientifica del lavoro. Milano: Edizioni di Comunità.
  56. Twh - The White House (2015) President Obama Announces Over $240 Million in New STEM Commitments at the 2015 White House Science Fair. The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, 23 March <>.
  57. Thymianidis M., Achillas C., Tzetzis D. and Iakovou E. (2012). Modern Additive Manufacturing Technologies: An Upto-Date Synthesis and Impact on Supply Chain Design. Presented at 2nd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains (ICSC 2012). Katerini, Greece, 5-6 October.
  58. Unioncamere – Ministero del Lavoro, Sistema Informativo Excelsior (2015). I fabbisogni occupazionali e formativi delle imprese italiane nell’industria e nei servizi per il 2015. Roma.
  59. Usanov A. and Chivot E. (2013). The European Labor Market and Technology. Employment, Inequality and Productivity. Report n. 2013•18. Den Haag: The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies and Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research TNO.
  60. Van Roy V., Vertesy D. and Vivarelli M. (2016). The Job-Creation Effect of Patents: some Evidence from European Microdata. Leuven: Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy and Innovation (MSI). FEB Research Report, vol: MSI_1603, <>.

  • Soddisfazione lavorativa nelle fabbriche del Veneto: come incentivarla? Ambra Galeazzo, in ECONOMIA E SOCIETÀ REGIONALE 1/2019 pp.141
    DOI: 10.3280/ES2019-001010

Roberto Santolamazza, Dejan Pejcic, Manifattura additiva: quale ruolo per il "capitale umano"? in "ECONOMIA E SOCIETÀ REGIONALE " 2/2016, pp 113-144, DOI: 10.3280/ES2016-002008