Post-partum depression in immigrant mothers: A review of the literature

Author/s Simona Di Folco, Giulio Cesare Zavattini
Publishing Year 2015 Issue 2015/2 Language Italian
Pages 31 P. 55-85 File size 137 KB
DOI 10.3280/MAL2015-002004
DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation click here

Below, you can see the article first page

If you want to buy this article in PDF format, you can do it, following the instructions to buy download credits

Article preview

FrancoAngeli is member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc (PILA), a not-for-profit association which run the CrossRef service enabling links to and from online scholarly content.

This review investigates post-partum depression (PPD) in immigrants and refugees and possible barriers which may influence their help seeking behavior. For the bibliographical research, Psych- Info and Medline online databases were used, considering the period between 2004 and identifying 51 articles. Findings suggested: 1) peculiarity of needs and risk factors for PPD among immigrants; 2) the specificity of underlined and not so much studied cultural factors; 3) paucity of studies concerning social support in help seeking behavior; and finally 4) need of future research about their perceptions, social support and barriers to help seeking in order to plan possible strategies and programs of intervention.

Keywords: Post-partum depression, refugees, immigrants, social support, not help seeking behavior

  1. Affonso, D. D., De, A. K., & Horowitz, J. A., et al. (2000). An international study exploring levels of postpartum depressive symptomatology. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 49, 207-216, DOI: 10.1016/S0022-3999(00)00176-8
  2. Almeida, L. M., Caldas, J., Ayres-de-Campos, D., Salcedo-Barrientos, D., & Dias, S. (2013). Maternal healthcare in migrants: A systematic review. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 17, 8, 1346-1354, DOI: 10.1007/s10995-012-1149-x
  3. Almeida, O. P., McCaul, K., Hankey, G. J., Norman, P., Jamrozik, K., & Flicker, L. (2008). Homocysteine and depression in later life. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65, 1286-1294, DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc.65.11.1286
  4. Alvidrez, J., & Azocar, F. (1999). Distressed women’s clinic patients: Preferences for mental health treatments and perceived obstacles. General Hospital Psychiatry, 21, 340-347, DOI: 10.1016/S0163-8343(99)00038-9
  5. Ammaniti, M., Speranza, A. M., Tambelli, R., Muscetta, S., Lucarelli, L., Vismara, L., Odorisio, F., & Cimino, S. (2006). A prevention and promotion intervention program in the field of mother-infant relationship. Infant Mental Health Journal, 27, 1, 70-90, DOI: 10.1002/imhj.20081
  6. Ammerman, R. T., Bodley, A. L., Putnam, F. W., Lopez, W. L., Holleb, L. J., Stevens, J., & Van Ginkel, J. B. (2007). In home cognitive behavior therapy for a depressed mother in a home visitation program. Clinical Case Studies, 6, 161-80, DOI: 10.1177/1534650106286533
  7. Ammerman, R. T., Putnam, F. W., Bosse, N. B., Teeters, A. R., & Van Ginkel, J. B. (2010). Maternal depression in home visitation: A systematic review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 15, 191-200, DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2009.12.002
  8. Aragones, E., Labad, A., Pinol, J. L., & Alonso, Y. (2005). Somatized depression in primary care attenders. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 58, 2, 145-151, DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2004.07.010.
  9. Ardino, V. (2011). La costruzione di significato della violenza sulla donna in contesti post-conflitto: uno studio interpretativo fenomenologico su rifugiati congolesi. Maltrattamento e abuso all’infanzia, 13, 3, 91-103, DOI: 10.3280/MAL2011-003006
  10. Ayalon, L., & Young, M. A. (2003). A comparison of depressive symptomatology in African-Americans and Caucasian-Americans. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 34, 111-124, DOI: 10.1177/0022022102239158
  11. Banfield, E. C. (1976). Le basi morali di una società arretrata. Bologna: il Mulino. Barclay, L., & Kent, D. (1998). Recent immigration and the misery of motherhood: A discussion of pertinent issues. Midwifery, 14, 4-9.
  12. Bayles, B., & Katerndahl, D. (2009). Culture-bound syndromes in Hispanic primary care patients. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 39, 1, 1531, DOI: 10.2190/PM.39.1.b
  13. Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., & Erbaugh, J. (1961) An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 561-571, DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc.1961.01710120031004
  14. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory-II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
  15. Beck, C. T., & Gable, R. K. (2000). Postpartum Depression Screening Scale: Development and psychometric testing. Nursing Research, 49, 272-282.
  16. Beck, C. T., & Gable, R. K. (2003). Postpartum Depression Screening Scale: Spanish version. Nursing Research, 52, 296-306.
  17. Bina, R. (2008). The impact of cultural factors upon postpartum depression: A literature review. Health Care for Women International, 29, 568-592, DOI: 10.1080/07399330802089149
  18. Bjerke, S. E. Y., Vangen, S., Nordhagen, R., Ytterdahl, T., Magnus, P., & Stray-Pedersen, B. (2008). Postpartum depression among Pakistani women in Norway: Prevalence and risk factors. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, 21, 12, 889-894, DOI: 10.1080/14767050802320340
  19. Bostock, J., Marsen, M., Sarwar, Z., & Stoltz, S. (1996). Postnatal depression in Asian women. Community Nurse, 10, 34-36.
  20. Brown, C., Schulberg, H. C., & Madonia, M. J. (1996). Clinical presentations of major depression by African Americans and whites in primary medical care practice. Journal of Affective Disorders, 41, 3, 181-191.
  21. Callister, L., Beckstrand, R. L., & Corbett, C. (2011). Postpartum depression and help seeking behaviors in immigrant Hispanic women. JOGNN: Journal Of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 40, 4, 440-449, DOI: 10.1016/S0165-0327(96)00085-7
  22. Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women (CRIAW; 2006). Intersectional feminist frameworks: An emerging vision. Ottawa Publisher, Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women
  23. Carballo, M., Grocutt, M., & Hadzihasanovic, A. (1996). Women and migration: A public health issue. World Health Statistics Quarterly, 49, 2, 158-164.
  24. Chandran, M., Tharyan, P., Muliyil, J., & Abraham, S. (2002). Post-partum depression in a cohort of women from a rural area of Tamil Nadu, India. Incidence and risk factors. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 181, 499-504, DOI: 10.1192/bjp.181.6.499
  25. Chen, T. L., Tai, C. J., Wu, T. W., Chiang, C. P., & Chien, L. Y. (2012). Postpartum cultural practices are negatively associated with depressive symptoms among Chinese and Vietnamese immigrant mothers married to Taiwanese men. Women & Health, 52, 536-552, DOI: 10.1080/03630242.2012.697109
  26. Christensen, A. L., Stuart, E. A., Perry, D. F., & Le, H. N. (2011). Unintended pregnancy and perinatal depression trajectories in low-income, high-risk Hispanic immigrants. Prevention Science, 12, 3, 289-299.
  27. Clark, L. (2001). La familia: Methodological issues in the assessment of perinatal social support for Mexicanas living in the United States. Social Science & Medicine, 53, 1303-1320, DOI: 10.1007/s11121-011-0213-x
  28. Collins, C., Zimmerman, C., & Howard, L. (2011). Refugee, asylum seeker, immigrant and postnatal depression: Rates and risk factors. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 14, 3, 3-11, DOI: 10.1007/s00737-010-0198-7
  29. Confalonieri, E., Gennari, M., & Renaldini, M. (2004). Prostituzione e donne straniere vittime della tratta: due studi qualitativi. Maltrattamento e abuso all’infanzia, 6, 1, 49-72.
  30. Corrigan, P. W., Backs Edwards, A., Green, A., Lickey Diwan, S., & Penn, D. L. (2001). Prejudice, social distance, and familiarity with mental illness. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 27, 219-225.
  31. Cox, J. L., Holden, J. M., & Sagovsky, R. (1987). Detection of postnatal depression: Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 782-786, DOI: 10.1192/bjp.150.6.782
  32. Coyne, J. C., Schwenk, T. L., & Fechner-Bates, S. (1995). Nondetection of depression by primary care physicians reconsidered. General Hospital Psychiatry, 17, 3-12, DOI: 10.1016/0163-8343(94)00056-J
  33. Dankner, R., Goldberg, R. P., & Fisch, R. Z., et al. (2000). Cultural elements of postpartum depression. A study of 327 Jewish Jerusalem women. Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 45, 97-104.
  34. Deepika, G., Murphy, S. O., & Cohen, J. (2006). Immigrant Asian Indian women and postpartum depression. Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, 35, 1, 98-104, DOI: 10.1111/j.1552-6909.2006.00007.x
  35. Diaz, M. A., Le, H. N., Cooper, B. A., & Muñoz, R. F. (2007). Interpersonal factors and perinatal depressive symptomatology in a Latina sample. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13, 4, 328-336, DOI: 10.1037/1099
  36. 9809.13.4.328. Di Blasio, P., Ionio, C., & Confalonieri, E. (2008). Parto e scrittura creativa: elaborare raccontando un’esperienza traumatica. In V. Caretti & G. Craparo (Eds.), Trauma e psicopatologia (pp. 270-286). Roma: Astrolabio.
  37. Di Blasio, P., Miragoli, S., Camisasca, E., Di Vita, A. M., Pizzo, R., & Pipitone, L. (2015). Emotional distress following childbirth: An intervention to buffer depressive and PTSD symptoms. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 11, 2, 214-232, DOI: 10.5964/ejop.v11i2.779
  38. Di Folco, S., & Zavattini, G. C. (2014). La relazione d’attaccamento padrebambino: una rassegna della letteratura. Giornale Italiano di Psicologia, 1, 159-190, DOI: 10.1421/77211
  39. Feinberg, E., Smith, M. V., Morales, M. J., Claussen, A. H., Smith, D. C., & Perou, R. (2006). Improving women’s health during internatal periods: Developing an evidenced-based approach to addressing maternal depression in pediatric settings. Journal of Women’s Health, 15, 692-703, DOI: 10.1353/hpu.0.0169
  40. Feinberg, E., Smith, M. P., & Naik, R. (2009). Ethnically diverse mothers’ views on the acceptability of screening for maternal depressive symptoms during pediatric well-child visits. Journal of Health Care Poor Underserved, 20, 3, 780-797.
  41. Fernandez y Garcia, E., Franks, P. R., Jerant, T., Bell, R. A., & Kravitz R. L. (2011). Depression treatment preferences of Hispanic individuals: Exploring the influence of ethnicity, language and explanatory models. Journal American Board of Family Medicine, 24, 1, 39-50, DOI: 10.3122/jabfm.2011.01.100118
  42. Gagnon, A., & Tuck, J. (2004). A systematic review of questionnaires measuring the health of resettling refugee women. Health Care for Women International, 25, 111-149, DOI: 10.1080/07399330490267503
  43. Gagnon, A., & Stewart, E. D. (2014). Resilience in international migrant women following violence associated with pregnancy. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 17, 4, 303-310, DOI: 10.1007/s00737-013-0392-5
  44. Garcia-Moreno, C., Jansen, H. A. F. M., Ellsberg, M., Heise, L., & Watts, C. (2005). WHO multicountry study on women’s health and domestic violence against women. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  45. Gaynes, B. N., Gavin, N., Meltzer-Brody, S., Lohr, K., Swinson, T., & Gartlehner, G., et al. (2005). Perinatal depression: prevalence, screening accuracy, and screening outcomes. Retrieved AHRQ publication number: 05-E006-02.
  46. Heh, S. S., Coombes, L., & Bartlett, H. (2004). The association between depressive symptoms and social support in Taiwanese women during the month. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 41, 573-579, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2004.01.003
  47. Heilemann, M., Coffey-Love, M., & Frutos, L. (2004). Perceived reasons for depression among low income women of Mexican descent. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 18, 185-192, DOI: 10.1016/j.apnu.2004.07.006.Heilemann,M.,Frutos,L.,Lee,K.A.,&Kury,F.S.(2004).Resources,risks,andprotectivefactorsinrelationtodepressivesymptomsamongpregnantandpostpartumwomenofMexicandescent.HealthCareforWomenInternational,25,88-106,doi:10.1080/07399330490253265
  48. Heneghan, A. M., Mercer, M. B., & DeLeone, N. L. (2004). Will mothers discuss parenting stress and depressive symptoms with their child’s pediatrician? Pediatrics, 113, 460-467.
  49. Hinshaw, S., & Stier, A. (2008). Stigma as related to mental disorders. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 4, 367-393, DOI: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.4.022007.141245
  50. Horowitz, J. A., Murphy, C. A., Gregory, K. E., & Wojcik, J. (2009). Communitybased postpartum depression screening: Results from the CARE project. Psychiatric Services, 60, 432-434, DOI: 10.1111/j.1552-6909.2010.01199.x
  51. Hung, C. H., Wang, H. H., Chang, S. H., Jian, S. H., & Yang, Y. M. (2012). The health status of postpartum immigrant women in Taiwan. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 21, 1544-1553, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2011.03999.x
  52. Ionio, C., & Di Blasio, P. (2014). Post-traumatic stress symptoms after childbirth and early mother-child interactions: An exploratory study. Journal of Reproductive & Infant Psychology, 19, 163-181, DOI: 10.1080/02646838.2013.841880
  53. Josefsson, A., Berg, G., Nordin, C., & Sydsjo, G. (2001). Prevalence of depressive symptoms in late pregnancy and postpartum. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 80, 251-255, DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0412.2001.080003251.x
  54. Kalibatseva, Z., & Leong, F. T. L. (2014). A critical review of culturally sensitive treatments for depression: Recommendations for intervention and research. Psychological Services, 11, 4, 433-450, DOI: 10.1037/a0036047
  55. Kaltman, S., Green, B. L., Mete, M., Shara, N., & Miranda, J. (2010). Trauma, depression, and comorbid PTSD/depression in a community sample of Latina immigrants. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy, 2, 1, 31-39, DOI: 10.1037/a0018952
  56. Kendall-Tackett, K. A. (2007). A new paradigm for postpartum depression: The central role of inflammation and how breastfeeding and anti-inflammatory treatments decrease risk. International Breastfeeding Journal, 2, 6, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4358-2-6
  57. Kennedy, A. C., Bybee, D., & Greeson, M. R. (2014). Examining cumulative victimization, community violence exposure, and stigma as contributors to PTSD symptoms among high-risk young women. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 84, 3, 284-294, DOI: 10.1037/ort0000001
  58. Kennedy, P., & Murphy-Lawless, J. (2003) The maternity care needs of refugee and asylum seeking women in Ireland. Feminist Review, 73, 39-53.
  59. Lambert, J. E., & Alhassoon, O. M. (2010). Trauma-focused therapy for refugees: Meta-analytic findings. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 62, 1, 28-37, DOI: 10.1037/cou0000048
  60. Lansakara, N., Brown, S. J., & Gartland, D. (2010). Birth outcomes, postpartum health and primary care contacts of immigrant mothers in an Australian nulliparous pregnancy cohort study. Maternal Child Health Journal, 14, 5, 807-16, DOI: 10.1007/s10995-009-0514-x
  61. Leong, F., Park, Y. S., & Kalibatseva, Z. (2013). Disentangling immigrant status in mental health: Psychological protective and risk factors among Latino and Asian American immigrants. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 83, 361-371, DOI: 10.1111/ajop.12020
  62. Lucero, N., Beckstrand, R., Callister, L.C., & Birkhead, A. (2012). The prevalence of postpartum depression in Hispanic immigrant women. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 24, 12, 726-734, DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-7599.2012.00744.x
  63. Manson, S. M., Shore, J. H., & Bloom, J. D. (1985). The depressive experience in American Indian communities: A challenge for psychiatric theory and diagnosis. In A. Kleinman & B. Good (Eds.), Culture and depression: Studies in the anthropology and cross-cultural psychiatry of affect and disorder (pp. 331-368). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  64. Martinez-Schallmoser, L., Telleen, S., & MacMullen, N. J. (2003). The effect of social support and acculturation on postpartum depression in Mexican American women. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 14, 329-338, DOI: 10.1177/1043659603257162
  65. McFarlane, J., Parker, B., & Moran, B. (2007). Abuse during pregnancy: Prevention and intervention. White Plains: March of Dimes Education Foundation.
  66. McGarry, J., Kim, H., Sheng, X., Egger, M., & Baksh, L. (2009). Postpartum depression and help-seeking behavior. Journal of Midwifery Womens Health, 54, 1, 50-56, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmwh.2008.07.003
  67. McLeish, J. (2005) Maternity experiences of asylum seekers in England. British Journal of Midwifery, 13, 12, 782-789.
  68. Mechakra-Tahiri, S., Zunzunegui, M. V., & Seguin, L. (2007). Self-rated health and postnatal depressive symptoms among immigrant mothers in Quebec. Women Health, 45, 4, 1-17, DOI: 10.1300/J013v45n04_01
  69. Milani, L., & Gagliardi, G. (2013). Fattori di rischio e di protezione nella valutazione delle competenze parentali di famiglie italiane e famiglie immigrate. Maltrattamento e abuso all’infanzia, 15, 1, 59-80, DOI: 10.3280/MAL2013-001004
  70. Miranda, J., Chung, J. Y., Green, B. L., Krupnick, J., Siddique, J., Revicki, D. A., & Belin, T. (2003). Treating depression in predominantly low income young minority women: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 290, 57-65, DOI: 10.1001/jama.290.1.57
  71. Miszkurka, M., Zunzunegui, M. V., & Goulet, L. (2012). Immigrant status, antenatal depressive symptoms, and frequency and source of violence: What’s the relationship? Archives of Womens Mental Health, 15, 5, 387-396, DOI: 10.1007/s00737-012-0298-7
  72. Monti, F., Agostini, F., Marano, G., & Lupi, F. (2008). The course of maternal depressive symptomatology during the first 18 months postpartum in an Italian sample. Archives of Womens Mental Health, 11, 231-238, DOI: 10.1007/s00737-008-0017-6
  73. Morrow, M., Smith, J. E., Lai, Y., & Jaswal, S. (2008). Shifting landscapes: Immigrant women and postpartum depression. Health Care Women Intern, 29, 6, 593-617, DOI: 10.1080/07399330802089156
  74. Munk-Olsen, T., Laursen, T. M., Mendelson, T., & Pedersen, C. B. (2010). Perinatal mental disorders in native Danes and immigrant women. Archives in Women’s Mental Health, 13, 319-326, DOI: 10.1007/s00737-009-0131-0
  75. Munoz, R. F., Le, H. N., Ippen, C. G., Diaz, M. A., Urizar, G. G., Soto, J., & Lieberman, A. F. (2007). Prevention of postpartum depression in low-income women: Development of the Mamas y Bebes/Mothers and Babies Course. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 14, 1, 70-83, DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2006.04.021
  76. Murray, L., & Cooper, P. (1996). The impact of postpartum depression on child development. International Review of Psychiatry, 8, 55-63, DOI: 10.3109/09540269609037817
  77. Murray, L., Cooper, P., & Fearon, P. (2014). Parenting difficulties and postnatal depression: Implications for primary healthcare assessment and intervention. Community Practitioner, 87, 11, 34-38.
  78. Nadeem, E., Lange, J. M., Edge, D., Fongwa, M., Belin, T., & Miranda, J. (2007). Does stigma keep poor young immigrant and US-born Black and Latina women from seeking mental health care. Psychiatric Services, 58, 12,1547-1554.
  79. Nadeem, E., Lange, J. M., & Miranda, J. (2009). Perceived need for care among low-income immigrant and US-born Black and Latina women with depression. Journal of Women’s Health, 18, 3, 369-375, DOI: 10.1089/jwh.2008.0898
  80. National Research Council & Institute of Medicine (2009). Preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders among young people: Progress and possibilities. Committee on Prevention of Mental Disorders and Substance Abuse Among Children, Youth, and Young Adults: Research Advances and Promising Interventions. In M. E. O’Connell, T. Boat & K. E. Warner (Eds.), Board on children, youth, and families, division of behavioral and social sciences and education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
  81. Nicolaidis, C., Timmons, V., Thomas, M. J., Wahab, S., Mejia, A., & Mitchell, S. R. (2010). “You don’t go tell White people nothing”: African American women’s perspective on the influence of violence and race on depression and depression care. American Journal of Public Health, 100, 1470-1476, DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2009.161950
  82. O’Mahony, J. M., & Donnelly, T. T. (2010). Immigrant and refugee women’s postpartum depression help-seeking experiences and access to care: A review and analysis of the literature. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 17, 10, 917-928, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2850.2010.01625.x.
  83. O’Mahony, J. M., Donnelly, T., Este, D., & Raffin Bouchal, S. (2012). Using critical ethnography to explore issues among immigrant and refugee women seeking help for postpartum depression. Issues in Mental Health, 33, 735-742.
  84. O’Mahony, J. M., Donnelly, T. T., Raffin Bouchal, S., & Este, D. (2013). Cultural background and socioeconomic influence among immigrant and refugee women coping with postpartum depression. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 15, 2, 300-314, DOI: 10.1007/s10903-012-9663-x
  85. Orr, S. T., & Miller, C. A. (1995). Maternal depressive symptoms and the risk of poor pregnancy outcome: Review of the literature and preliminary findings. Epidemiologic Reviews, 17, 165-171.
  86. Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D Scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385-401, DOI: 10.1177/014662167700100306
  87. Rahman, A., Iqbal, Z., & Harrington, R. (2003). Life events, social support and depression in childbirth: Perspectives from a rural community in the developing world. Psychological Medicine, 33, 1161-1167.
  88. Reitmanova, S., & Gustafson, D. L. (2008). “They can’t understand it”: Maternity health and care needs of immigrant Muslim women in St. John’s, Newfoundland. Journal of Maternal and Child Health, 12, 101-111, DOI: 10.1007/s10995-007-0213-4
  89. Rodrigues, M., Patel, V., & Jaswal, S., et al. (2003). Listening to mothers: Qualitative studies on motherhood and depression from Goa, India. Social Science & Medicine, 57, 1797-1806, DOI: 10.1016/S0277-9536(03)00062-5
  90. Ryder, A. G., Yang, J., Zhu, X., Yao, S., Yi, J., Heine, S. J., & Bagby, R. M. (2008). The cultural shaping of depression: Somatic symptoms in China, psychological symptoms in North America? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117, 300-313, DOI: 10.1037/0021-843X.117.2.300
  91. Schraufnagel, T. J., Wagner, A. W., Miranda, J., & Roy-Byrne, P. P. (2006). Treating minority patients with depression and anxiety: What does the evidence tell us? General Hospital Psychiatry, 28, 27-36, DOI: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2005.07.002
  92. Seguin, L., Potvin, L., St Denis, M., & Loiselle, J. (1999). Depressive symptoms in the late postpartum among low socioeconomic status women. Birth, 26, 157-163, DOI: 10.1046/j.1523-536x.1999.00157.x
  93. Small, R., Lumley, J., & Yelland, J. (2003). Cross-cultural experiences of maternal depression: Associations and contributing factors for Vietnamese, Turkish and Filipino immigrant women in Victoria, Australia. Ethnicity & Health, 8, 3,189-206, DOI: 10.1080/1355785032000136416
  94. Sosta, E., Tomasoni, L. R., Frusca, T., Triglia, M., & Pirali, F., et al. (2008). Preterm delivery risk in migrants in Italy: An observational prospective study. Journal of Travel Medicine, 15, 243-247, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2008-1160.
  95. Spanier, G. B. (1976). Measuring dyadic adjustment: New scales for assessing the quality of marriage and similar dyads. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 38, 15-28.
  96. Stewart, D. E., Gagnon, A. J., Merry, L. A., & Dennis, C. (2012). Risk factors and health profiles of recent migrant women who experienced violence associated with pregnancy. Journal of Women’s Health, 21, 1100-1106, DOI: 10.1089/jwh.2011.3415
  97. Stewart, D. E., Gagnon, A. J., Saucier, J. F., Wahoush, O., & Dougherty, G. (2008). Postpartum depression symptoms in newcomers. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 53, 2, 121-124.
  98. Stuchbery, M., Matthey, S., & Barnett, B. (1998) Postnatal depression and social supports in Vietnamese, Arabic and Anglo-Celtic mothers. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 33, 483-490, DOI: 10.1007/s001270050083
  99. Templeton, J., Velleman, R., & Persaud, A., et al. (2003). The experiences of postnatal depression in women from black and minority ethnic communities in Wiltshire, UK. Ethnicity & Health, 8, 207-221, DOI: 10.1080/1355785032000136425
  100. Teng, L., Blackmore, E. R., & Stewart, D. E. (2007). Healthcare worker’s perceptions of barriers to care by immigrant women with postpartum depression: An exploratory qualitative study. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 10, 93-101, DOI: 10.1007/s00737-007-0176-x
  101. Urquia, M., O’Campo, P., & Heaman, M. (2012). Revisiting the immigrant paradox in reproductive health. The roles of duration of residence and ethnicity. Social Science and Medicine, 74, 10, 1610-1621, DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.02.013
  102. Velotti, P., Castellano, R., & Zavattini, G. C. (2011). Adjustment of couples following childbirth. The role of generalized and specific states of mind in an Italian sample. European Psychologist, 16, 1, 1-10, DOI: 10.1027/1016-9040/a000022
  103. Yoshida, K., Marks, M. N., & Kibe, N., et al. (1997). Postnatal depression in Japanese women who have given birth in England. Journal of Affective Disorders, 43, 69-77, DOI: 10.1016/S0165-0327(96)01419-X
  104. Ward, C. (2003). Migrant mothers and the role of social support when child rearing. Contemporary Nurse, 16, 74-82.
  105. Weller, S., Baer, R., Garcia de Alba Garcia, J., & Salcedo Rocha, A. (2008). Susto and nervios: Expressions for stress and depression. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 32, 3, 406-420, DOI: 10.1007/s11013-008-9101-7
  106. World Health Report (WHO, 2005). Make every mother and child count. Zayas, L. H., & Busch-Rossnagel, N. A. (1992). Pregnant Hispanic women: A mental health study. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 9, 515-521. Zelkowitz, P., Saucier, J.-F., Wang, T., Katofsky, L., Valenzuela, M., & Westreich,
  107. R. (2008). Stability and change in depressive symptoms from pregnancy to two months postpartum in childbearing immigrant women. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 11, 1-11, DOI: 10.1007/s00737-008-0219-y

  • Sintonie e dissintonie nei legami precoci: traiettorie di valutazione e considerazioni cliniche nei contesti ad alto rischio per lo sviluppo infantile Simona Di Folco, Gaia de Campora, Giulio Cesare Zavattini, in MALTRATTAMENTO E ABUSO ALL'INFANZIA 2/2016 pp.71
    DOI: 10.3280/MAL2016-002005

Simona Di Folco, Giulio Cesare Zavattini, La depressione post-partum nelle madri immigrate: una review della letteratura in "MALTRATTAMENTO E ABUSO ALL’INFANZIA" 2/2015, pp 55-85, DOI: 10.3280/MAL2015-002004