Pratiche sessuali a "rischio" in un campione di lavoratori sessuali italiani. Dai copioni sessuali tradizionali all’attore sessuale neoliberale?

Journal title SALUTE E SOCIETÀ
Author/s Cirus Rinaldi, Marco Bacio
Publishing Year 2022 Issue 2022/2 Language Italian
Pages 17 P. 114-130 File size 103 KB
DOI 10.3280/SES2022-002009
DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation click here

Below, you can see the article first page

If you want to buy this article in PDF format, you can do it, following the instructions to buy download credits

Article preview

FrancoAngeli is member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc (PILA), a not-for-profit association which run the CrossRef service enabling links to and from online scholarly content.

In this article, we deal with the so-called "risky sexual behaviours" and the spread of HIV/AIDS among the community of MSM (men who have sex with other men). For a long time, both the sociological analysis and the medical and epidemiological approach studied the behaviour of the gay population as "inherently" more problematic in terms of spreading the human immunodeficiency virus. For these studies, even more dangerous are those men who sell sex and sexual services. Starting from a sample of twenty-one male sex workers in Italy and of the use or misuse of condoms during encounters with their male clients, this contribu-tion will try to understand how "risky sexual practices" (like barebacking or doing sex without a condom) are written and re-written. From the sexual script theory to the recent advancement in medicine in the fight against HIV/AIDS (like TasP and PrEP) that shape and re-shape how sex is performed, moving from the "gay plague" to the "Truvada whore" and from traditional sexual scripts to the neoliberal sexual actor.

Keywords: male sex workers; sexual scripts; HIV/AIDS; condom; safe sex; risky sex.

  1. Brents B.G., Sanders T. (2010). Mainstreaming the sex industry: Economic inclusion and social ambivalence. Journal of Law and Society, 37: 40-60.
  2. Brown G., Maycock B. (2005). Different spaces, same faces: Perth gay men’s experiences of sexuality, risk and HIV. Culture, Health and Sexuality, 7: 59-72. DOI: 10.1080/1369105041233127142
  3. Cohen M., Chen Y., McCauley M., Gamble T, Hosseinipour M.C., Kumarasamy N., Hakim J.G., Kumwenda J., Grinsztejn B., Pilotto J.H.S., Godbole S.V., Mehendale S., Chariyalertsak S., Santos B.R., Mayer K.H., Hoffman I.F., Eshleman S.H., Piwowar-Manning E., Wang L., Makhema J., Mills L.A., de Bruyn G., Sanne I., Eron J., Gallant J., Havlir D., Swindells S., Ribaudo H., Elharrar V., Burns D., Taha T.E., Nielsen-Saines K., Celentano D., Essex M., Fleming T.R. (2011). Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy. New England Journal of Medicine, 365: 493-505.
  4. Conrad P. and Schneider J.R. (1983). Deviance and Medicalization. From Badness to Sickness. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
  5. Dean T. (2015). Mediated intimacies: Raw sex, Truvada, and the biopolitics of chemoprophylaxis. Sexualities, 18: 224-246. DOI: 10.1177/136346071556913
  6. Dean T. (2012). La cultura della “fecondazione”. Barebacking, bugchasing, giftgiving. In: Rinaldi C., a cura di, Alterazioni. Introduzione alle sociologie delle omosessualità. Milano: Mimesis.
  7. Dowsett G. (2009). Dangerous desires and post-queer HIV prevention: Rethinking community, incitement and intervention. Soc Theory Health, 7: 218-240.
  8. Dowsett G. (1996). Living post-AIDS. HIV/AIDS Health promotion and gay communities. National AIDS Bulletin, 10: 18-23.
  9. Dowsett G., McInnes D. (1996). Gay community, AIDS agencies and the HIV epidemic in Adelaide: Theorising ‘post AIDS’. Social Alternatives, 15: 29-32.
  10. Flood M. (2003). Lust, Trust and Latex: Why Young Heterosexual Men Do Not Use Condoms. Culture, Health and Sexuality, 5: 353-369. DOI: 10.1080/136910501100002827
  11. Foth T., O’Byrne P., Holmes D. (2016). Health prevention in the era of biosocieties: a critical analysis of the ‘Seek-and-Treat’ paradigm in HIV/AIDS prevention. Nurs Inquiry, 23: 99-108.
  12. Foucault M. (2019). Nascita della biopolitica: corso al Collège de France (1978-1979). Milano: Feltrinelli.
  13. Gagnon J.H., Simon W. (1973). Sexual Conduct. The social sources of human sexuality. New Brunswcik e Londra: Aldine-Transaction.
  14. Holmes D., O’Byrne P., Gastaldo D. (2006). Raw sex as limit experience: A Foucauldian analysis of unsafe anal sex between men. Social Theory & Health, 4: 319-333.
  15. Holmes D., Warner D. (2004). The Anatomy of Forbidden Desire: Men, Penetration and Semen Exchange. Nursing Inquiry, 12: 10-20.
  16. Hoppe T. (2011). Circuits of power, circuits of pleasure: Sexual scripting in gay men’s bottom narratives. Sexualities, 14: 193-217. DOI: 10.1177/136346071139903
  17. Logan T.D. (2010). Personal characteristics, sexual behaviors and male sex work: a quantitative approach. American Sociological Review, 75: 679-704. DOI: 10.1177/000312241037958
  18. Lupton D. (2003). Il rischio. Percezione, simboli, culture. Bologna: Il Mulino.
  19. Newmahr S. (2011). Playing on the Edge: Sadomasochism, Risk, and Intimacy. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  20. O’Byrne P., Holmes D., Woodend K. (2008). Understanding human sexual networks: a critique of the promiscuity paradigm. Critical Public health, 18: 333-345. DOI: 10.1080/0958159080217803
  21. Petersen A., Lupton D. (1996). The new public health: health and self in the age of risk. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
  22. Pini A. (2003). La prostituzione maschile. In: Associazione on the road, a cura di, Porneia. Voci e sguardi sulle prostituzioni. Padova: Il Poligrafo.
  23. PrEPWatch (2021). -- Sito web:
  24. Ridge D.T. (2004). “It was an incredible thrill”: The social meanings and dynamics of younger gay men’s experiences of barebacking in Melbourne. Sexualities, 7: 259-279. DOI: 10.1177/136346070404013
  25. Rinaldi C. (2020). Uomini che si fanno pagare. Genere, identità e sessualità nel sex work maschile tra devianza e nuove forme di normalizzazione. Roma: Derive Approdi.
  26. Rinaldi C. (2016). Sesso, sé e società. Per una sociologia della sessualità. Milano: Mondadori.
  27. Robinson A.B. (2014). Barebacking with Weber: Re-enchanting the rational sexual order. Social Theory & Health, 12: 235-250. DOI: 10.1057/STH.2014.
  28. Sanders T. (2005). ‘It’s Just Acting’: Sex Workers’ Strategies for Capitalizing on Sexuality. Gender, Work and Organization, 12: 319-342.
  29. Sarre R., Tomsen S. (1997). Violence and HIV/AIDS: exploring the link between homophobic violence and the perception of HIV/AIDS as a “gay disease”. In: Mason G., Tomsen S., a cura di, Homophobic violence. Sydney: Hawkins Press.
  30. Scott J., Minchiello V., Meenagh J. (2015). Male escorts in Australia. In: Aggleton P., Parker R., a cura di, Men Who Sell Sex: Global Perspectives. Londra: Routledge.
  31. Scott H.M., Buchbinder S.P. (2019). STIs: an unintended consequence of improved sexual health? The Lancet HIV, 6: 415-416. DOI: 10.1016/S2352-3018(19)30140-
  32. Selvey L.A., Hallett J., McCausland K., Bates J., Donovan B., Lobo R. (2018). Declining Condom Use Among Sex Workers in Western Australia. Front Public Health, 6: 342.
  33. Suarez T.P., Kelly J.A., Pinkerton S.D., Stevenson Y.L., Hayat M., Smith M.D., Ertl T. (2001). Influence of partners’ HIV serostatus, use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, and viral load on perceptions of sexual risk behavior in a community sample of men who have sex with men. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 28: 471-477. DOI: 10.1097/00042560-200112150-0001
  34. Tavory I., Swidler A. (2009). Condom Semiotics: Meaning and Condom Use in Rural Malawi. American Sociological Review, 74: 171-189. DOI: 10.1177/00031224090740020
  35. ten Brummelhuis H., Herdt G., a cura di (1995). Culture and Sexual Risk. Anthropological Perspectives on AIDS. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach Publishers.
  36. Watney S. (1987). Policing Desire: Pornography, AIDS, and the Media. Londra: Cassell.
  37. World Health Organization (‎2015)‎. Policy brief: pre-exposure prophylaxis (‎PrEP)‎: WHO expands recommendation on oral pre-exposure prophylaxis of HIV infection (‎PrEP)‎. Ginevra: World Health Organization. -- Testo disponibile al sito: (18/02/2022).
  38. Adam B.D. (2005). Constructing the Neoliberal Sexual Actor. Culture, Health and Sexuality, 7: 333-346. DOI: 10.1080/1369105050010077
  39. Bacio M. and Peruzzi M. (2017). Alla ricerca della felicità. Gay su Grindr, tra sesso e solitudine. In: Rinaldi C., a cura di, I Copioni Sessuali. Storia, analisi e applicazioni. Milano: Mondadori.
  40. Bacio M. and Rinaldi C. (2018). Social suffering as structural and symbolic violence. LGBT experiences in the Face of AIDS film archive. In: Björklund E., Larsson M., a cura di, A Visual History of HIV/AIDS. Exploring The Face of AIDS Film Archive. London e New York: Routledge.
  41. Bernstein E. (2007). Sex Work for the Middle Classes. Sexualities, 10: 473-488. DOI: 10.1177/136346070708098
  42. Boles J., Elifson K.W. (1994). Sexual identity and HIV: the male prostitute. The Journal of Sex Research, 31: 39-46. DOI: 10.1080/0022449940955172
  43. Brennan D.J., Souleymanov R., George C., Newman P.A., Hart T.A., Asakura K., Betancourt G. (2015). Masculinity, muscularity, and HIV sexual risk among gay and bisexual men of color. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 16: 393-403.
  44. Gastaldo D., Holmes D., Lombardo A., O’Byrne P. (2009). Unprotected sex among men who have sex with men in Canada: exploring rationales and expanding HIV prevention. Critical Public Health, 19: 399-416. DOI: 10.1080/0958159080256645
  45. Gonzalez O.R. (2019). HIV-Pre-Exposure Prophylaxys (PrEP), “the Truvada Whore”, and the new gay sexual revolution. In: Varghese R., a cura di, Raw. PrEP, pedagogy, and the politics of barebacking. Regina: University of Regina Press.
  46. Gonzalez O.R. (2010). Tracking the bugchaser: Giving the gift of HIV/AIDS. Cultural Critique, 75: 82-113.
  47. Green A.I. (2014). The Sexual Fields Framework. In: Green A.I., a cura di, Sexual Fields. Toward a Sociology of Collective Sexual Life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  48. Halperin D. (2007). What Do Gay Men Want? An Essay on Sex, Risk, and Subjectivity. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  49. Holmes D., Murray S.J., Foth T., a cura di (2018). Radical sex between men. Assembling desiring-machines. Londra e New York: Routledge.

Cirus Rinaldi, Marco Bacio, Pratiche sessuali a "rischio" in un campione di lavoratori sessuali italiani. Dai copioni sessuali tradizionali all’attore sessuale neoliberale? in "SALUTE E SOCIETÀ" 2/2022, pp 114-130, DOI: 10.3280/SES2022-002009