Clicca qui per scaricare

L’invecchiamento ottimale: una rassegna sui principali modelli teorici e sulle strategie proattive in grado di promuoverlo
Titolo Rivista: RICERCHE DI PSICOLOGIA  
Autori/Curatori: Manuela Zambianchi 
Anno di pubblicazione:  2013 Fascicolo: Lingua: Italiano 
Numero pagine:  35 P. 9-43 Dimensione file:  371 KB
DOI:  10.3280/RIP2013-01001
Il DOI è il codice a barre della proprietà intellettuale: per saperne di più:  clicca qui   qui 


La Rassegna ha preso in esame i temi dell’invecchiamento ottimale e delle strategie attive individuali che lo facilitano e promuovono. Dopo un breve inquadramento storico-demografico dell’invecchiamento della popolazione vengono approfonditi i principali modelli teorici sull’invecchiamento positivo ed una loro comparazione allo scopo di identificare gli aspetti in comune, le divergenze concettuali e le potenziali ricadute a livello di politiche sociali e sanitarie. Un aspetto che accomuna questi modelli e la rilevanza accordata alla presenza di risorse elevate negli ambiti fisico, psicologico e sociale affinche si possa parlare di invecchiamento ottimale. L’accento posto sulle risorse a livello sistemico bio-psico-sociale da parte di questi modelli porta con se la questione delle strategie efficaci per accumularle, mantenerle e allocarle in modo selettivo e congruente con i desideri e le potenzialita della persona anziana. Le strategie attive di Selezione, Ottimizzazione e Compensazione e le strategie proattive di coping sono state esaminate per il loro contributo al mantenimento di una elevata funzionalita globale e alla conservazione delle risorse. La Rassegna si conclude con alcune considerazioni riguardanti possibili future aree di ricerca nell’area tematica dell’invecchiamento ottimale e delle strategie proattive.


Keywords: Invecchiamento ottimale, modelli teorici, strategie proattive, risorse.

  1. Antonovsky, A. (1987). Unraveling the mystery of health: How people manage stress and stay well. The Jossey-Bass social and behavioral science series and the Jossey-Bass health series: San Francisco.
  2. Aspinwall, L.G. (1997). Where planning meets coping: Proactive coping and the detection and management of potential stressors. In S.L. Friedman & E.K. Scholnick (Eds.), The developmental psychology of planning: Why, how, and when do we plan? (pp. 285-320). London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
  3. Aspinwall, L.G., & Taylor, S.E. (1997). A stitch in time: self-regulation and proactive coping. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 417-436., 10.1037/0033-2909.121.3.417DOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.121.3.417
  4. Baltes, P. (1987). Theoretical propositions of life-span developmental psychology: on the dynamics between growth and decline. Developmental Psychology, 5, 611-626., 10.1037/0012-1649.23.5.611DOI: 10.1037/0012-1649.23.5.611
  5. Baltes, P.B., & Baltes, M. (1990). Psychological perspectives on successful aging: the model of selective optimization with compensation. In P.B. Baltes & M.M. Baltes (Eds.). Successful aging: perspectives from the behavioural sciences (pp. 1-34). New York: Cambridge University Press., 10.1017/CBO9780511665684.003DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511665684.003
  6. Baltes, P.B., & Carstensen, L.L. (1996). The process of successful ageing, Ageing and Society, 16, 397-422., 10.1017/S0144686X00003603DOI: 10.1017/S0144686X00003603
  7. Baltes, P.B., & Mayer, K.U. (1999). The Berlin Aging Study. Aging from 70 to 100. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  8. Baltes, P.B., & Smith, J. (1997). A systemic-holistic view of psychological functioning in very old age: introduction to a collection of articles from the Berlin Aging Study. Psychology and Aging, 12, 395-409., 10.1037/0882-7974.12.3.395DOI: 10.1037/0882-7974.12.3.395
  9. Baltes, P.B., & Smith, J. (2003). New frontiers in the future of aging: from successful aging of the young old to the dilemmas of the fourth age. Gerontology, 49,123-135., 10.1159/000067946DOI: 10.1159/000067946
  10. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
  11. Bandura, A. (2000). Autoefficacia. Teorie e applicazioni. Trento: Erikson.
  12. Bergman, L.R., El-Khouri, B.M. (2003). A person-oriented approach: methods for today and methods for tomorrow. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 110, 25-38., 10.1002/cd.80DOI: 10.1002/cd.80
  13. Bode, C., de Ridder, D.T.D., & Bensing, J.M. (2007). Preparing for aging: development, feasibility and preliminary results of an educational program for midlife and older based on proactive coping theory. Patient education and counselling, 61, 272-278., 10.1016/j.pec.2005.04.006DOI: 10.1016/j.pec.2005.04.006
  14. Brandstadter, J. & Renner, G.(1990). Tenacious Goal Pursuit and Flexible Goal Adjustment: Esplication and Age-Related Analysis of Assimilative and Accomodative Strategies of coping. Psychology and Aging, 5(1), 58-67., 10.1037/0002-9432.74.2.187DOI: 10.1037/0002-9432.74.2.187
  15. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1978). The Ecology of Human Development. Cambridge, M.A.: Harvard University Press.
  16. Camargo, B.V. (2005). ALCESTE: um programa informatico de analise quantitativa de dados textuais. In A.S.P. Moreira, J.C. Jesuino, B.V. Camargo & S.M. Nobrega (Eds.), Perspectivas teorico-metodologicas em representacoes sociais (pp. 511-539). UFPB, JP.
  17. Carstensen, L.L., Isaacowitz, D.H., & Charles, S.T. (1999). Taking time seriously: a theory of socioemotional selectivity. American Psychologist, 54, 165-181., 10.1037/0003-066X.54.3.165DOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.54.3.165
  18. Costa, P.T., & Mc Crae, R.R. (1985). The NEO -Personality Inventory: manual Form S and Form R. Odessa FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
  19. Cumming, E., & Henry, E. (1961). Growing old: the process of disengagement. New York: Basic Books.
  20. Diener, E., & Fujita, F. (1995). Resources, personal strivings and subjective wellbeing: A nomothetic and idiographic approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 926-935., 10.1037/0022-3514.68.5.926DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.68.5.926
  21. Elder, G.H.jr. (1994). Time, Human Agency and Social Change: perspective on the Life Course, Social Psychology Quarterly, 1, 4-15.
  22. Elder, G.H.jr. (1999). The Life Course and Aging: Some reflections. Paper presented for Distinguished Scholar Lecture Section on Aging American Sociological Association.
  23. Eysenck, H.J., & Eysenck, M.W. (1985). Personality and individual differences, a natural science approach. New York: Plenum., 10.1007/978-1-4613-2413-3DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4613-2413-3
  24. Flick, U., Fisher, C., Neuber, A., Friedrich, W.S., & Walter, U. (2003). Health in the context of growing old: Social Representations of health. Journal of Health Psychology, 8, 539-556., 10.1177/13591053030085006DOI: 10.1177/13591053030085006
  25. Freund, A., Nikitin, J., & Ritter, J.O. (2009). Psychological consequences of longevity. The increasing importance of self-regulation in old age. Human Development, 52, 1-37., 10.1159/000189213DOI: 10.1159/000189213
  26. Freund, A.M., & Baltes, P.B. (2002). Life-management strategies of selection, optimization and compensation: measurement by self-report and construct validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 642-662., 10.1037/0022-3514.82.4642DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.82.4642
  27. Gastaldi, A., & Contarello, A. (2006). Una questione di eta: Rappresentazioni Sociali dell'invecchiamento in giovani ed anziani. Ricerche di Psicologia, 20, 7-22.
  28. Gerstorf, D., & Ram, N. (2009). Limitations on the importance of self-regulation in old age, Human Development, 52, 38-43., 10.1159/000189214DOI: 10.1159/000189214
  29. Gerstorf, D., Smith, J., & Baltes, P.B. (2006). A systemic-wholistic approach to differential aging: longitudinal findings from the Berlin Aging Study, Psychology and Aging, 21, 645-663., 10.1037/0882-7974.21.4.645DOI: 10.1037/0882-7974.21.4.645
  30. Glass, T.A., Seeman, T.E., Herzog, A.R., Kahn, R., & Berkman, L.F. (1995). Change in productive activity in late adulthood: Mac Arthur Studies of Successful Aging. Journal of Gerontology: Social Science, 50(B), S65-S76., 10.1093/geronb/50b.2.S65DOI: 10.1093/geronb/50b.2.S65
  31. Gollwitzer, P.M. (1996). The volitional benefits of planning. In P.M. Gollwitzer & J.A. Bargh (Eds.), The psychology of action: Linking cognition and motivation to behavior (pp. 287-312). New York: Guilford.
  32. Grossman, I., Naa, J., Varnuma, M.E., Parkb, D.C., Kitayamaa, S., & Nisbett, R. (2010). Reasoning about social conflicts improves into old age. Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, 16, 7246- 7250, 10.1073/pnas.1001715107DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1001715107
  33. Hardy, S.E., Concato, J., & Gill, T.M. (2004). Resilience of Community-Dwelling Older Person. Journal of American Geriatrics Society, 52, 257-262., 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2004.52065.xDOI: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2004.52065.x
  34. Veloz, M.C.T., Nascimento-Schulze, C.M., & Camargo, B.V. (1999). Social Representations of Aging. Psychology Reflection and Critique, 12, 470-501.
  35. Harlow, R.E., & Cantor, N. (1996). Still participating after all these years: a study of life task participation in later life, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 6, 1235-1249., 10.1037/0022-3514.71.6.1235DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.71.6.1235
  36. Hatch, S. (2005). Conceptualizing and Identifying Cumulative Adversity and Protective Resources: Implications for Understanding Health Inequalities. Journal of Gerontology, SERIES B, 60b, 130-134., 10.1093/geronb/60.Special_Issue_2.S130DOI: 10.1093/geronb/60.Special_Issue_2.S130
  37. Havighurst, R.J., & Albrecht, R. (1953). Older People. New York: Longmans Green.
  38. Hobfoll, S.E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress, American Psychologist, 44, 513-524., 10.1037/0003-066X.44.3.513DOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.44.3.513
  39. Holahan, C.K., & Chapman, J.R. (2002). Longitudinal predictors of proactive goals and activity participation at age 80. Journal of Gerontology: PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE, 5, 418-425., 10.1093/geronb/57.5.P418DOI: 10.1093/geronb/57.5.P418
  40. Holman, E.A., & Zimbardo, P.G. (2009). The social language of time: the time perspective-social network connection. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 31, 136-147., 10.1080/01973530902880415DOI: 10.1080/01973530902880415
  41. Jaspars, J., & Fraser, C. (1989). Atteggiamenti e rappresentazioni sociali. In R.M. Farr & S. Moscovici (Eds.), Rappresentazioni sociali. Bologna: il Mulino.
  42. Jones, J.M., Banickly, L., Lasane, T.P., & Pomare, M. (1999). A temporal orientation scale: Focusing attention on past, present and future. Manuscript in preparation, University of Delaware.
  43. Jones, J.M., Banicky, L., Lasane, T.P., & Pomare, M. (2005) A temporal orientation scale: Focusing attention on past, present and future. Unpublished manuscript, University of Delaware, USA.
  44. Jopp, D., & Smith, J. (2006). Resources and life-management strategies as determinants of successful aging: on the protective effect of selection, optimization and compensation (SOC). Psychology and Aging, 21, 253-265., 10.1037/0882-7974.21.2.253DOI: 10.1037/0882-7974.21.2.253
  45. Joreskog, K.G., & Sorbom, D. (1993). Lisrel 8: User’s Guide. Chicago, IL: Scientific Software International.
  46. Kahana, E., & Kahana, B. (1996). Conceptual and empirical advances in understanding aging well through proactive adaptation. In V.L. Bengtson (ed.), Adulthood and aging. Research on continuities and discontinuities. New York: Springer.
  47. Kahana, E., Kahana, B., & Zjiang, J. (2005). Motivational antecedents of preventive proactivity in late life: Linking future orientation and exercise. Motivation and Emotion, 29, 443-464., 10.1007/s11031-006-9012-2DOI: 10.1007/s11031-006-9012-2
  48. Kahana, E., Lawrence, R.H., Kahana, K., Kercher, A., Wisniewski, A., & Stoller, E. (2002). Long-term impact of preventive proactivity on quality of life of the old-old. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64, 382-394.
  49. Keyes, C.L.M. (1998). Social Well-Being, Social Psychology Quarterly, 61, 121-140., 10.2307/2787065DOI: 10.2307/2787065
  50. Labouvie-Vief, G., & Diehl, M. (2000). Cognitive complexity and Cognitive – Affective Integration: related or separate domains of adult development? Psychology and Aging, 15, 490-504., 10.1037/0882-7974.15.3.490DOI: 10.1037/0882-7974.15.3.490
  51. Lazarus, R., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, Appaisal and Coping. New York: Springer.
  52. Little, B.R. (1989). Personal projects analysis: Trivial pursuits, magnificent obsessions, and the search for coherence. In D. Buss & N. Cantor (Eds.), Personality Psychology: Recent Trends and Emerging Directions (pp. 15-31). New York: Springer-Verlag., 10.1007/978-1-4684-0634-4_2DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4684-0634-4_2
  53. Magnusson, D. (1995). Individual development: a holistic integrated model. In P. Moen, G.H. Elder, & K. Lusher (Eds), Linking lives and contexts: perspectives on the ecology of human development. Washington D.C: APA Books., 10.1037/10176-001DOI: 10.1037/10176-001
  54. Marsiske, M., Lang, F.R., Baltes, P.B., & Baltes, M.M. (1995). Selective optimization with compensation: Life-span perspectives on successful human development. In R.A. Dixon e L. Backman (Eds.), Compensating for psychological deficits and declines: Managing lossess and promoting gains (pp. 35-79). Hillsdale, N.J.: Herlbaum.
  55. Masten, A.S.,& Obradovic’, J. (2006). Competence and resilience in development. Annals of New York Academy of Sciences, 1094, 13-27., 10.1196/annals.1376.003DOI: 10.1196/annals.1376.003
  56. Moscovici, S. (1961). La psychanalyse, son image et son public. Paris: PUF.
  57. Moscovici, S. (2000). Social Representations: Explorations in social psychology. Cambridge: Polity Press.
  58. Ouwehand, C., de Ridder T.D.,& Bensing, J.M. (2006). Situational aspects are more important in shaping proactive coping behaviour than individual characteristics: A vignette study among adults preparing for ageing, Psychology and Health, 6, 809-825., 10.1080/14768320500537639DOI: 10.1080/14768320500537639
  59. Ouwehand, C., de Ridder, D.T.D., & Bensing, J.M. (2007). A Review of successful aging models: proposing proactive coping as an important additional strategy. Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 873-884., 10.1016/j.cpr.2006.11.003DOI: 10.1016/j.cpr.2006.11.003
  60. Pinquart, M., & Sorensen, S. (2005). Ethnic differences in stressors, resources and psychological outcomes of family caregiving: a Meta- analysis. Gerontologist, 1, 90-106., 10.1093/geront/45.1.90DOI: 10.1093/geront/45.1.90
  61. Ryff, C.D. (1989). Beyond Ponce del Leon and life satisfaction: new directions in quest of successful aging. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 1, 35-55., 10.1177/016502548901200102DOI: 10.1177/016502548901200102
  62. Rowe, J.W., & Kahn, R. (1987). Human Aging: usual and successful. Science, 237, 143-149., 10.1126/science.3299702DOI: 10.1126/science.3299702
  63. Rowe, J.W., & Kahn, R. (1997). Successful Aging. The Gerontologist, 37, 433-440., 10.1093/geront/37.4.433DOI: 10.1093/geront/37.4.433
  64. Rutter, M. (2002). Nature, nurture and development: from evangelism through science toward policy and practice. Child Development, 1, 1-21.
  65. Schulz, R., & Heckhausen, J. (1996). A Life Span Model of Successful Aging. American Psychologists, 7, 702-714., 10.1037/0003-066X.51.7.702DOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.51.7.702
  66. Schwarzer, R. (2000). Manage stress at work through preventive and proactive coping. In E.A. Locke (ed)., The Blackwell handbook of principles of organizational behavior (pp. 342-355). Oxford: Blackwell.
  67. Schwarzer, R., & Taubert, S. (2002). Tenacious goal pursuit and striving toward personal growth: proactive coping. In E. Fyndenberg (ed.) Beyond coping: meeting goals, visions and challenges (pp. 19-35). London: Oxford University Press.
  68. Seligman, M., & Csikszentmiahlyi, M. (2000). Positive Psychology. American Psychologist, 55, 5-14., 10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.5DOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.5
  69. Staudiger, U.M., Freund, A.M., Linden, M., & Maas, I. (1999). Self, personality and life regulation of psychological resilience in old age. In Karl U. Mayer & Paul B. Baltes (Eds.), The Berlin Aging Study. Cambridge, UK.: Cambridge University Press.
  70. Stevernik, N., & Lindenberg, S. (2006). Which social needs are important for Subjective Well-Being? What happens to them with aging? Psychology and Aging, 2, 281-290., 10.1037/0882-7974.21.2.281DOI: 10.1037/0882-7974.21.2.281
  71. Stevernik, N., Lindenberg, S., & Slaets, J.P.J. (2005). How to understand and improve older people’s self-management of well-being, European Journal of Ageing, 2, 235-244., 10.1007/s10433-005-0012-yDOI: 10.1007/s10433-005-0012-y
  72. Streib, G.F., & Binstock, H.R. (1990). Aging and the Social Science: Changes in the filed. In R.H. Binstock & L.K George (Eds.), Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences. New York: Academic Press.
  73. Verbrugge, L.M., & Jette, A.M. (1994). The disablement process. Social Science & Medicine, 38, 1-14.
  74. Waterman, A. (1993). Two conceptions of happiness: contrasts of personal expressiveness (Eudaimonia) and Hedonic Enjoyment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 678-691., 10.1037/0022-3514.64.4.678DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.64.4.678
  75. Watson, D., Clark, L.A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of a brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063-1070., 10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063
  76. Zambianchi, M., & Ricci Bitti, P.E. (2010a). Influenza delle strategie proattive di coping sul benessere sociale e sulla progettualita di vita nell’anziano. Medicina Psicosomatica, 3, 125.
  77. Zambianchi, M., & Ricci Bitti, P.E. (2010b). Rappresentazioni sociali della salute e dell’invecchiamento in un gruppo di anziani. Psicologia della Salute, 2, 95-110., 10.3280/PDS2010-002007DOI: 10.3280/PDS2010-002007

Manuela Zambianchi, in "RICERCHE DI PSICOLOGIA " 1/2013, pp. 9-43, DOI:10.3280/RIP2013-01001

   

FrancoAngeli è membro della Publishers International Linking Association associazione indipendente e no profit per facilitare l'accesso degli studiosi ai contenuti digitali nelle pubblicazioni professionali e scientifiche